MWF_9 - Organic Lecture Series Acids and Bases Chapter 4 2...

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Organic Lecture Series 2 Acids and Acids and Bases Bases Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Organic Lecture Series 3 Arrhenius Acids and Bases Arrhenius Acids and Bases • In 1884, Svante Arrhenius proposed these definitions acid: acid: A substance that produces H 3 O + ions aqueous solution. base: base: A substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution. – this definition of an acid is a slight modification of the original Arrhenius definition, which was that an acid is a substance that produces H + in aqueous solution. – today we know that H + reacts immediately with a water molecule to give a hydronium ion. H + + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) Hydronium ion
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Organic Lecture Series 4 Br Br ønsted nsted -Lowry Definitions Lowry Definitions Acid: Acid: proton donor. Base: Base:proton acceptor. Organic Lecture Series 5 Conjugate Acids & Bases Conjugate Acids & Bases – Conjugate base Conjugate base: The species formed from an acid when it donates a proton to a base. – Conjugate acid: Conjugate acid: The species formed from a base when it accepts a proton from an acid. – Acid Acid -base reaction: base reaction: A proton-transfer reaction. – Conjugate acid Conjugate acid -base pair: base pair: Any pair of molecules or ions that can be interconverted by transfer of a proton. HCl( aq )H 2 O(l) Cl - ( ) H 3 O + ( ) + + Water Hydrogen chloride Hydronium ion Chloride ion (base) (acid) (conjugate acid of H 2 O) (conjugate base of HCl) conjugate acid-base pair conjugate acid-base pair
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Organic Lecture Series 6 – Brønsted-Lowry definitions do not require water as a reactant.
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MWF_9 - Organic Lecture Series Acids and Bases Chapter 4 2...

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