medicallyqualifieddoctorsprovidedhistoricalaccounts of sexual behaviour does not mean, however,that medicalisation had not occurred. If medicalisationis seen as a social process that does not require theactive involvement of doctors, and medical science isinvoked to support particular ideological positions,then the medicalisation thesis can be sustained regard-less of the number of doctors involved.Psychiatry and the medicalisation of sexPsychiatry, as the moral arm of medicine, played amajor role in developing the idea that some sexualbehaviours are expressions of disease. TheDiagnosticandStatisticalManualofMentalDisorders, firstpublished by the American Psychiatric Society in1952, described “treatable” behaviours that previouslyhad been seen as morally inadmissible. This book washugely influential in defining and sustaining judg-ments regarding the sexual behaviours that requiredmedical intervention.12For example, homosexuals,
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