Wall street investors learned that when the

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Unformatted text preview: me harmful proteins. Wall Street investors learned that when the technology showed signs of failure in a late-phase clinical trial for patients with skin cancer, researchers recruited more research subjects in an attempt to find a statistically significant positive result. Finally, the available pool of human subjects in the United States is shrinking. The relatively affluent U.S. population is using too many drugs (Gorman 2004). ‘‘Treatment saturation’’ is making Americans increasingly unusable from a drug-testing standpoint, as our pharmaceuticalized bodies produce too many drug – drug interactions, providing less and less capacity to show drug effectiveness and making test results less statistically valid. Indeed, whatever an American is ready to provide as a human subject, owing to a belief in scientific progress, altruism, or therapeutic need, will never be enough to satisfy the current level of demand for human subjects in commercial science. And that Americans cannot satisfy the need is pushing the human-subjects research imperative to other shores. In this section, I examine historical aspects and operations of North American CROs, members of a specialized industry that began listing and selling securities on public exchanges in the early 1990s and that focuses on efficient and cost-effective human-subjects research and recruitment. The demand for human subjects in developing countries is related to the dynamics of industry-sponsored pharmaceutical...
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