3_Sex, Drugs, and Politics - Casper and Carpenter

3_Sex, Drugs, and Politics - Casper and Carpenter - 888...

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888 Monica J. Casper and Laura M. Carpenter © 2008 The Authors Cervical cancer and HPV The cervix comprises the lower part of the uterus and is divided from the upper uterus and vagina by the os (Singer and Jordan 2006). It is covered by two layers of epithelia: an inner basal columnar epithelium and a thin outer tissue layer made of ±at, irregularly shaped squamous cells. The cervical epithelium undergoes many changes, beginning during fetal life and continuing until menopause; ‘the result is a dynamic epithelium of varied morphology’ (2006: 35). Physiological dynamism renders the cervix susceptible to malignancies. Cervical cancer is a common disease affecting only women. While there has long been confusion surrounding CC classi²cation systems (Clarke and Casper 1996) it is now under- stood that initial stages of CC, known as squamous cell carcinomas, account for about 80 per cent of all invasive cases. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognises early
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