tify articles describing clinical trial results or scientific reviews (includ-ing journal supplements) discussed in-ternally within Merck prior to publi-cation that proposed an external, academically affiliated investigator as an author. No documents were ex-cluded as part of this search; all docu-ments were related to 1 or more of the identified manuscripts (most manu-scripts were discussed within ± 1 docu-ment). The published articles were subsequently identified via MEDLINE. This search was supplemented with MEDLINE queries for other rofecoxib-related articles authored by academi-cally affiliated investigators identified as first authors within documents, which were found by searching for the author’s name and “rofecoxib” or “cy-clooxygenase inhibitor.” This search identified 96 published articles. Impor-tantly, identification of these articles does not imply that each was guest au-thored or ghostwritten; we examined these articles because we believed their discussion within internal documents (or the discussion of specific authors) suggested that Merck was aware of the manuscript prior to publication and perhaps had provided support for the project. All published articles were catego-rized as to whether a manuscript’s co-author was affiliated with Merck (ie, a Merck employee), whether the pub-lished article included any financial dis-closure, whether the published article included a financial disclosure of Merck support, and whether the published ar-ticle included a financial disclosure of Merck support by at least 1 of the aca-demic authors. For articles in which
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