6_Epstein - Lay Expertise - 412 Science,...

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Unformatted text preview: 412 Science, Technology,& HumanValues versies. The science of AIDS thereforecannotsimply be analyzed"fromthe top down"; it demands attentionto what Foucault has called the "microphysics of power" in contemporaryWestern societies-the dispersal of fluxes of power throughout ll the cracksand crevices of the social system; a the omnipresenceof resistanceas imminentto the exercise of power at each local site; andthe propagation f knowledges,practices,subjects,and meano ings out of the local deploymentof power (Foucault1979, 1983).7 The Rise of the AIDS Movement A numberof studies of scientific controversiesin the public arena(e.g., Mazur1973; Nelkin 1982) have focused in useful ways on the clash between scientistsor othercredentialed xpertsandsocial movements.Yetfew studies e have exploredthe role of movementsin the constructionof credibleknowledge, and few sociologists of scientific knowledge have engaged with the sociological literatureon social movements.8Petersen and Markle (1981, 153) have applied the "resourcemobilization"perspective (McCarthyand Zald 1977) to the study of the cancer treatmentmovement, analyzing the structural onditionsthat allow such movementsto "tryto form coalitions, c seek sponsorship,andappealto a wideraudience... as a meansof increasing their movement resources."And Indyk and Rier (1993) have likewise emc phasizedresourcemobilizationin theiruseful analysis of the particular ase of alternativeknowledge productionin the AIDS epidemic. But there has been little attentionby analysts of science to the growing theoretical and o empiricalliterature n "new social movements"(e.g., Cohen 1985; Gamson a 1992;Habermas1981;Klandermans ndTarrow 988;Larana, ohnston,and 1 J Gusfield 1994;Melucci 1989;MorrisandMueller 1992;TaylorandWhittier 1992; Touraine1985). These works describingthe ecology movement, the women's movement, the antinuclearmovement, racial and ethnic movements, the lesbian and gay movement,and so on have an obvious relevance to the study of the AIDS movement.9 Theorists and analysts of new social movements differ greatly in their t approaches o the topic, butmost tend to agreethatthe actorswithinthe new movementsare drawnprimarilyfromthe "newmiddle class" or "newclass" of cultureproducers.But as againstthe traditionsof working-classpolitics, o the class character f the new movementsis not emphasizedby the activists. They are involved not (or at least, not only) in a distributivestruggle,where an overall quantityof resourcesis being parceledout to competing groups, but in a struggle over culturalforms-what Habermas(1981, 33) calls the o "grammar f forms of life." Their emphases tend to be on "personaland ...
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