From Hyperactive Children to ADHD Adults 563 The most significant criterion for diagnosis was a child's behavior, especially at school. The emphasis in identification was on hyperactive and disruptive behaviors (Conrad 1976). The major treatments for hyperactivity were stimulant medications, especially Ritalin. During the 1960s, the disorder became increasingly well known, due, in part, to publicity it received concerning controversies about drug treatment. By the middle 1970s, it had become the most common childhood psychiatric problem (Gross and Wilson 1974) and special clinics to iden- tify and treat the disorder were established, although most children were diagnosed by their pediatrician or primary care physician. While there were no methodologically sound epidemiological studies in the 1970s, it was widely estimated that 3-5% of elementary school students were hyperactive (occasionally estimates were as high as 10%). Frequently mentioned estimates suggested between 250,000 and 500,000 children were identified as hyperactive. The disorder was believed to affect
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