have been undertaken for the purpose of pleasure, it may now be understood as a medically relevant activity, undertaken for the purposes of good health (De Swaan, 1990, p. 59). According to Crawford, healthism is morally laden (1980, p. 371). This idea of morally regulating behaviour resonates, not only with Parsons’s view of the moral obligations of patients to try to get well, but also with the Foucauldian view that, through medical surveillance, individuals in contemporary society come to see conformity to medically defined normality as ‘good’ behaviour (Turner, 1987; Armstrong, 1995). Although not strictly identified as ‘medicalisation’, this Foucauldian notion of normalization suggests that the ‘clinical gaze’ can, in theory, expand into any aspect of social life that can be visualized (Armstrong, 1995). As techniques with which to observe, examine, measure and make comparisons against an established norm expand, new dimensions of the medical body become visible. This, in turn, creates new ways of conforming to normality for
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