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Unformatted text preview: 242 7 chapter chapter outline module 22 Explaining Motivation Instinct Approaches: Born to Be Motivated Drive-Reduction Approaches: Satisfying Our Needs Arousal Approaches: Beyond Drive Reduction Incentive Approaches: Motivation’s Pull Try It! Do You Seek Out Sensation? Cognitive Approaches: The Thoughts Behind Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy: Ordering Motivational Needs Applying the Different Approaches to Motivation module 23 Human Needs and Motivation: Eat, Drink, and Be Daring The Motivation Behind Hunger and Eating Becoming an Informed Consumer of Psychology: Dieting and Losing Weight Successfully Sexual Motivation The Needs for Achievement, Affiliation, and Power module 24 Understanding Emotional Experiences Determining the Range of Emotions: Labeling Our Feelings The Roots of Emotions Exploring Diversity: Do People in All Cultures Express Emotion Similarly? Psychology on the Web The Case of . . . Maria Tokarski, the Happiest Loser Full Circle: Motivation and Emotion 243 motivation and emotion In just a moment, 27-year-old Aron Ralston’s life changed. An 800-pound boulder dislodged in a narrow canyon where Ralston was hiking in an isolated Utah canyon, pinning his lower arm to the ground. For the next five days, Ralston lay in the dense, lonely forest, unable to escape. An expe- rienced climber who had search-and-rescue training, he had ample time to consider his options. He tried unsuccessfully to chip away at the rock, and he rigged up ropes and pulleys around the boulder in a vain effort to move it. Finally, out of water and nearly dehydrated, Ralston reasoned there was only one option left short of dying. In acts of incredible brav- ery, Ralston broke two bones in his wrist, applied a tourniquet, and used a dull pen knife to amputate his arm beneath the elbow. Freed from his entrapment, Ralston climbed down from where he had been pinned, and then hiked five miles to safety (Ralston, 2004; Martin, 2006). Armed with Bravery Ralston, who now has a prosthetic arm, recovered from his ordeal. He remains an active outdoorsman and hiker. The topics of motivation and emotion are central in attempting to explain Ralston’s extraordinary courage and will to live. Psychologists who study motivation seek to discover the particular desired goals—the motives—that underlie behavior. Behaviors as basic as drinking to satisfy thirst and as incon- sequential as taking a stroll to get exercise exemplify motives. Psychologists specializing in the study of motivation assume that such underlying motives steer our choices of activities. Whereas motivation concerns the forces that direct future behavior, emotion pertains to the feelings we experience throughout our lives. The study of emotions focuses on our internal experiences at any given moment. All of us feel a variety of emotions: happiness at succeeding at a difficult task, sadness over the death of a loved one, anger at being treated unfairly. Because emotions not only play a role in motivating our behavior but also act as a reflection of our underlying motivation, they play an important...
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