For Exam 2 CHEM - Chemistry in Focus 3rd edition Tro...

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Chemistry in Focus 3rd edition Tro Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements
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Bohr’s model Atoms with full outer orbits are extremely stable. Atoms with outer orbits that are less than fullare unstable and will undergo chemical reactions attempting to fill the outer orbit.
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The Quantum Mechanical Model Based on the behavior of electrons as Replace Bohr’s orbits with orbitals , a representation of electron location as the Orbital – probability function – you can never know anything for sure unless it has been experimentally determined Orbitals are grouped into shells and fill similarly to Bohr’s orbits.
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Determinism and Quantum Mechanics Specifics of orbital filling are beyond the scope of this text…BUT Is still valid – works for everything An indeterminant universe Both models are useful even though Bohr’s has been shown to be invalid.
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Determinism Cause and effect Oxygen Atomic # 8 O 8e- Read from upper right to bottom left 1s^2, 2s^2, 2p^4 - numbers after “^” should = atomic # (after 3p its 4s) 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 5g 6s 6p 6d 6f 6g 6h 8 16 S = max #2 P = max #6 D max 10 F max 14 (7 – 2 electrons in each)
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Calcium (Ca) – A# - 20 1s^2, 2s^2, 2p^6, 3s^2, 3p^6 , 4s^2 Zirconium (Zr) –A# 40 1s^2, 2s^2, 2p^6, 3s^2, 3p^6, 4s^2, 3d^10, 4p^6, 5s^2 , 4d^2 –Valence electrons = 2 (know because of the “5”. Should end with Zr2+ ion) Iridium (Ir) – 77
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For Exam 2 CHEM - Chemistry in Focus 3rd edition Tro...

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