For exam 1 - Chemistry in Focus 4th edition Tro Chapter 1...

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Chemistry in Focus 4th edition Tro Chapter 1 Molecular Reasons
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Firesticks A chemical reaction is an extraordinary transformation. Microscopic vs. Macroscopic Worlds Interpretation of a situation depends manner in which it is framed And so, why should nonscience majors study science (chemistry in particular)?
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Molecular Reasons Chemistry is a world we cannot see, yet it is the cause of all that is around us. Chemists examine the Microscopic for our Macroscopic observations.
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The Scientist and the Artist To what extent can each be used to frame “science” as we know it? Antoine Lavoisier Father of modern chemistry Married rich on purpose Artist Tinkerer Beheaded
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Scientific Method: a process by which a set of observations leads to a model of reality
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Underlying Causes Hypothesis Experiment Theory Further experimentation
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First Wonderers Greek philosophers - Plato – thought that he could figure everything out by reasoning Democritus – reasoning, some experiments – coined term “atomos” (atom) indivisible Thales – reasoning –everything based on water Empedocles – came up with earth, air, fire, water Aristotelian logic Added the heavenly eather – everything unexplained – well received by church
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Alchemy Goal: transmutation and discovery of the “elixir of life” - GOLD Metallurgy – learned how to smelt Mysticism and secrecy slowed any real scientific progress. – had to write in code Dark ages
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An Understanding The scientific revolution Publications by Copernicus and Vesalius (emphasized observation and experimentation.) Copernicus - put in writing the fact that he thought that the sun was the center of the universe. The earth rotated around the sun) and Vesalius - anatomy Opposition from Aristotle and the Church Robert Boyle’s Skeptical Chymist
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Classification by Composition: Pure substance Compounds and elements Mixtures Homogeneous and Heterogeneous
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Properties of Matter Physical properties: those properties that a substance displays Don’t change Chemical properties: those properties that a substance displays They DO change So to, physical and chemical properties
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Differentiating between physical and chemical properties (and/or changes) is NOT trivial for the inexperienced observer.
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Atomic Theory Develops Lavoisier – came up with the law of conservation of mass (everything you start out with in your chemical reaction is present at the end) (cannot just disappear) Proust – law of constant composition H2O and H2O2 are different things Refer to examples 1.3 and 1.4 and the associated Your Turns in your textbook.
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All matter is composed of particles called atoms.
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This note was uploaded on 10/10/2010 for the course COMM 2024 at Virginia Tech.

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For exam 1 - Chemistry in Focus 4th edition Tro Chapter 1...

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