1004.Chap.10 - Chapter 10 The Family The “traditional”...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–14. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10, The Family The “traditional” family is less As a percent of common All households “Traditional Families” Single-parent Families 14% 9% Family households 21% 14% Changes in family structure 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1970 2004 Wkid 0kid 1Par Oth 1Per NF Functions of the Family 1. Reproduction 2. Socialization 3. Care, protection, emotional support 4. Assignment of social status 5. Regulation of sexual behavior Cohabitation has become common 1970: 500,000 unmarried, heterosexual couples 2000: 5 million unmarried, heterosexual couples Percent of unmarried people cohabiting (1992-1994) 25 20 15 10 5 0 25- 30- 35- 40- 45- 50- 5529 34 39 44 49 54 59 Percent Cohabitation patterns Newly-weds are increasingly likely to have cohabited Marriage year % cohab 1965-1974 ≈10% 1990-1994 >50% Cohabitation Doesn’t Mean Childless Marriage status of cohabiters Divorced Never married % with kids in household 50% 35% Many non-marital births occur in cohabiting households How many? 40 percent The increase in cohabitation is related to several broad social trends Cultural change Individualism Secularism Economic change Industrialization Women’s role in labor market Changing social norms Gender roles The Sexual Revolution Effect of cohabitation on divorce “Those who cohabit before marriage have substantially higher divorce rates those who do not; the recorded differentials ranged from 50 to 100% …” Axinn and Thornton, Demography, August 1992, page 358 How important is selectivity in the effect of cohabitation on divorce? “When we do not correct for selectivity, we find that having cohabited with this partner before marriage has a strong positive effect on the chances that the marriage will end. Correction for selectivity, however, completely eliminates the effect of prior cohabitation on marital dissolutions.” Lillard, Brien, Waite, Demography, August 1995, page 437. Effects of Divorce on Children: Short term Eating disorders Anger, self-blame,fears, loyalty conflicts Poorer health Less sociable More anxious, depressed Less maternal warmth Behavioral problems at school Higher rates of drug use and premarital sexual activity Effects of Divorce on Children: Long term Negative: Positive: More mature Better self-efficacy Psychological well-being Marital satisfaction; divorce Education; income Physical health Neutral Self-esteem Social competence Stepfamilies 8 out of 10 remarriages involve children Strains peculiar to stepfamilies Some parent-child bonds are older than the husband-wife bond. Children may have a parent elsewhere. No legal tie between stepparent and child. May be unrealistic expectations. Parents may have different parenting styles. Pro-family social policies Premise: the family is a very important social institution Question: Why should individual families bear the total cost of performing these functions for society? Families that Work: Policies for Reconciling Parenthood and Employment Janet Gornick and Marcia Meyers The U. S. and 11 other countries Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden Continental countries: Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands English speaking: Great Britain, Regulation of working time in Europe Standard work week is a little shorter Part-time work is more available and higher quality Limits on (or compensation for) nonstandard work schedules More vacation time (guaranteed) Chapter 11, Medicine Medicine as a social institution Some has “specialized knowledge” Home remedies, medicine man Today we have large hospitals, actual doctors Paul Starr, The Social Transformation of American Medicine 19th century: low income for doctors After Civil War, economic position improved By 1900, “cultural authority” Self-regulation Client deference Autonomy By 1930, “sole arbiters of medicine” Managed care: Power of doctors waning Reasons For the Increasing Cost of Health Care 1. Rules of the market place do not apply Patients don’t go around and “shop” for best deal 1. More labor intensive Since 1950 the number of hospital workers per bed has tripled 1. Upgrading the scope and intensity of medical services New procedures cost much money 1. Population aging 2. Broader concept of health Psychological services; Infertility High price of health care in U.S. About $2.5 Trillion per year About 16% of GDP Are we getting our money’s worth for our health care dollar? Chapter 11, Religion, Education, and Medicine Religion as a social institution… Shared ways of thinking about the ultimate meaning of life, the existence of God or some supernatural power, how we should live our lives, and what happens after death. World Religions Christianity Roman Catholic Protestant Orthodox Anglicans Other Muslim Hindu Buddhism Jews 33% 17% 5% 4% 1% 7% 20% 13% 6% 0.2% Religious Affiliation in the U.S. Catholics Other Christian Baptist Methodist Lutheran Presbyterian Jews Muslims Buddhist 24% 54% 16% 7% 5% 3% 1.4% 0.5% (1.1 Million) 0.5% (1.1 Million) Church membership is high, compared to the past 1776: 17% 1860: 37% 1926: 58% 1975: 71% 1997: 67% Is The Significance of Religion Declining in the U.S.? Only about 20% of Protestant & 28% of Catholic attend….. BUT 94% Believe in God Church membership is high A large majority (79%) say religion is important to their lives “Religion is important to my life” -- The U.S. versus other postindustrial countries U.S. 79% Canada 65% Italy 64% Germany 58% Japan 57% Australia 52% U.K. 41% France 26% Muslim Fundamentalism Iran 1979 Egypt 1981 Anwar Sadat Hosni Mubarak Afghanistan 1979 Mujahadeen Taliban, al Qaeda Pakistan 1980s, 1990s, today Islamization Koran – Muslim holy book They don’t like the US “Imperial Hubris: Why the West Is Losing the War on Terror” Michael Scheuer Worked for the CIA for 22 years “For the [l]ast 17 years, [his] career focused exclusively on terrorism, Islamic insurgencies, militant Islam, and the affairs of South Asia – Afghanistan and Pakistan.” Imperial Hubris What does bin Laden want? “Bin Laden is out to drastically alter U.S. and Western policies toward the Islamic world, not necessarily to destroy America, much less its freedoms and liberties.” Imperial Hubris How does bin Laden influence Muslims? The “unofficial sixth pillar of Islam” is jihad, i.e., the act of defending the faith. “The threat facing America is a defensive jihad, an Islamic military reaction triggered by an attack by non-Muslims on the Islamic faith, on Muslims, on Muslim territory, or on all three.” Imperial Hubris “Bin Laden is waging a defensive jihad against the United States; he is inciting others to join, not because he orders them to, but because God has ordered them to do so in what He revealed in the Koran. ….” Imperial Hubris “… Bin Laden’s genius lies not in his call for a defensive jihad, but in constructing and articulating a consistent, convincing case that an attack on Islam is under way and is being led and directed by America. In turn, as his argument is increasingly accepted by Muslims, each individual faces a fateful decision, one that will decide where he or she spends eternity. …” Imperial Hubris “… If bin Laden’s argument is accepted, he or she must take up arms or otherwise support the mujahideen, or face eternal damnation for not performing a duty mandated by God.” Imperial Hubris “It is, I believe, the Muslim perception that the things they love are being intentionally destroyed by America that engenders Islamist hatred toward the United States, and that simultaneously motivates a few Muslims to act alone and attack U.S. interests; a great many more to join organizations like al Qaeda and its allies; and massive numbers to support those organizations’ defensive military actions with prayers, donations, blind eyes, or logistical support.” Functionalist View of Religion 1. Social ”glue” 2. Provides meaning and overcomes uncertainty Conflict theory Marx: Opium of the people Felt that religion is a pain killer that helps with stress and everyday life Religion and social change Maintain the status quo? Promote social change? Chapter 12, Population and Environment Basic population statistics World Population: 6.3 Billion Pop. Growth Rate: 1.3% per yr. Doubling Time Rule of 70 Doubling Time (yrs.) = 70/Growth Rate(%) EG 70 = 54 years 1.3 70 = 35 years 2.0% Population Growth Rate Crude of Rate of Natural Increase = CBR - CDR CBR = [N(Births)/Population Size] * 1000 CDR = [N(Deaths)/Population Size] *1000 The Population Growth Rate (CRNI) Varies • MDC • LDC • Africa • So. Amer. • China • Asia except China 0.1 1.6 2.4 1.5 0.7 1.6 • U.S. • Europe • E. Europe 0.6 -0.1 -0.5 Quick history of population growth Population of World 1 Billion 2 Billion 3 Billion 4 Billion 5 Billion 6 Billion Year 1800 1925 1960 1975 1987 1999 Years to add one Billion ---125 35 15 12 12 TFR: Total Fertility Rate The number of children the average woman can be expected to have in her lifetime, given the fertility rate at a given time in a given place. (e.g. country). TFR LDC (except China) Africa Niger Asia (except China) China Latin America Oceania U.S. Europe 3.5 5.2 8.0 3.1 1.7 2.7 2.4 2.0 1.4 Thomas Malthus • Positive checks – War, famine, epidemic disease • Preventive checks – – Defer marriage Opposed to contraception & abortion Is it appropriate to talk about a “population explosion”? • Maybe yes, maybe no • No: Growth “only” 1.3% • Yes – – Growth much faster than during most of human history At current rate, population will double in about a half century lag Vital Rates CDR CRNI CBR Traditional Transitional Growth CRNI (gap) = CBR - CDR Modern Reasons for the Demographic Transition • Falling death rates – Technological development • • • • Industrial Agricultural Transportation Medical/public health • Birth rate stable • Falling birth rates – – Lower death rates Change in structure of society – Industrialization – Urbanization Compare MDCs and LDCs (less developed countries) Re: Demographic Transition 1. MDCs at modern stage 2. Decline in death rates faster for LDCs 3. Most LDCs are in the transitional stage Compare MDCs and LDCs re: Population Growth Rate Population CRNI (%) (Bil) MDCs 1.2 0.1% Annual increase 1.2 Mil LDCs 5.2 1.5% 78 Mil The momentum of population growth • For LDCs, 2-child family now => 60% population growth • 15 years => 150% population growth • Today in LDCs (except China), average woman expected to have 3.5 children Infant Mortality Rate N Infant deaths per year N births per year X 1000 LDCs ≈62/1000 U.S. ≈6.7/1000 How many infant deaths are there in LDCs? • • • • • • Population about 5.2 Billion CBR about 24/1000 Births about 124,800,000 per year IMR about 62/1000 Infant deaths about 7,738,000 per year Infant deaths about 21,200 per day Reasons for high infant mortality in LDCs • Malnutrition • Diarrhea • Infant formula Role of Infant Formula in Infant Mortality • Contaminated water • Hard to boil bottles • No refrigeration • Formula is expensive • Advantages of breastfeeding – – Immune bodies Child spacing The Baby Boom • • • Peak period: 1946 - 1964 Peak year: 1957 Causes: 1. 2. 3. Family re-union after WWII Economic growth in late 40s, 50s Social norms about women Consequences of Baby Boom Decade 1950s 1960s Impact on Society Education (Elem) Education (Elem, HS) Unemployment Crime Education (College, Elem, HS) Unemployment Fertility Education (Elem, College) Crime 1970s 1980s Consequences of Baby Boom Cont. Decade 1990s 2000s 2010s Impact on Society Older work force Older work force Retirement Baby Boom: Unusual Aspects • Rise in birth rate followed long term decline in birth rate (150+ years) • Rise in birth rate during a period of rising economic fortunes Population Policies • Births, deaths, migration • China, India, Thailand Family planning program in China • • • • • “One-child policy (urban)” Incentives Opposition Successful; TFR=1.7 A model for others? Thailand • A “large” predominantly rural population with a dramatic decline in birth rate • 55 to 65 Mil (1969 to 2005) • 70% to 80% rural • Area: About 5X Virginia Thailand – birth rate • TFR 1969: 6.3 • Fertility rate down: – – – 40% in 10 years 50% in 15 years 60% in 20 years • TFR 2005: 1.7 Thailand – reasons for decline • Rapid social and economic change • Cultural setting – – No religious taboos on birth control Status of women relatively high • Strong national family planning program since 1969 Thailand - Mechai • Mechai Viravaidya: Folk hero of the Thai family planning program • Condoms • Vasectomy India • Nearly as large as China (1.1 Bil) • CRNI = 1.7%; TFR = 3.1 • First-ever national family planning program (1952) • Family planning program didn’t work very well for first 20 years ...
View Full Document

Page1 / 70

1004.Chap.10 - Chapter 10 The Family The “traditional”...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 14. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online