1004.chap1.part2 - Chapter one part two Characteristics of...

Info icon This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Chapter one, part two Characteristics of the Skepticism Scientific Empirical (not Normative) Objectivity Objectivity Operational def Operational Method Relativism Testable Seven Steps in Research 1. Selecting a researchable problem 2. Reviewing the literature 3. Formulating a hypothesis 4. Choosing a research design Seven Steps in Research 4. Choosing a research design * What data will be gathered? * How will the data be gathered? * How will the data be used to test the theory? * How can other explanations be ruled out? continued Major Approaches to Sociological Research Experimental (i.e., Historical Historical Field work Field Participant observation Research Designs) Sample survey Seven Steps in Research 4. Select research method 5. Collecting the data 6. Analyzing the data 7. Stating conclusions continued Ethical issues Must not damage, injure, or permanently change Must people that we are studying IRBs: Institutional Review Boards IRBs: Laboratory Experiment “Bystander Intervention” Kitty Genovese Theory of diffusion of responsibility Language of Research Cause = Independent variable Effect = Dependent variable Experimental variable = Independent variable Experimental controlled by the researcher controlled Hypothesis: Expected relationship between the Hypothesis: independent variable and the dependent variable. independent Theory of diffusion of responsibility Percent “helping” Wait alone Wait with 2 others 70% 40% General Methodological Issues Representativeness Reliability Validity Why don’t we always use experiments? May be impossible May be impractical May be unethical Historical research Census records Court records Police records Church records Diaries, newspapers And more Participant Observation – field work Advantages Rich picture Insider’s view Disadvantages Representativeness Representativeness Lack validity? Lack Most common approach: Sample Disadvantages Survey Don’t observe behavior Don’t control independent variable Advantages Many topics Representative sample Random Sample Everyone has the same chance of being selected Technically: Everyone has a known, non-zero Technically: chance of being selected. chance The WAY a sample is selected is much more The WAY important than the size of the sample important Question Wording is Important “Should laws be passed to eliminate all possibilities Should of special interests giving huge sums of money to candidates? candidates? “…or do groups have a right to contribute to the or candidate they support.” candidate Some Terms Correlation: A relationship between two variables. Cause-and-effect relationships Spurious correlation Criteria for Establishing Causality 1. 2. 3. 4. Association Time priority Nonspurious relation Rationale ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern