1004.chap1.part2 - Chapter one part two Characteristics of...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter one, part two Characteristics of the Skepticism Scientific Empirical (not Normative) Objectivity Objectivity Operational def Operational Method Relativism Testable Seven Steps in Research 1. Selecting a researchable problem 2. Reviewing the literature 3. Formulating a hypothesis 4. Choosing a research design Seven Steps in Research 4. Choosing a research design * What data will be gathered? * How will the data be gathered? * How will the data be used to test the theory? * How can other explanations be ruled out? continued Major Approaches to Sociological Research Experimental (i.e., Historical Historical Field work Field Participant observation Research Designs) Sample survey Seven Steps in Research 4. Select research method 5. Collecting the data 6. Analyzing the data 7. Stating conclusions continued Ethical issues Must not damage, injure, or permanently change Must people that we are studying IRBs: Institutional Review Boards IRBs: Laboratory Experiment “Bystander Intervention” Kitty Genovese Theory of diffusion of responsibility Language of Research Cause = Independent variable Effect = Dependent variable Experimental variable = Independent variable Experimental controlled by the researcher controlled Hypothesis: Expected relationship between the Hypothesis: independent variable and the dependent variable. independent Theory of diffusion of responsibility Percent “helping” Wait alone Wait with 2 others 70% 40% General Methodological Issues Representativeness Reliability Validity Why don’t we always use experiments? May be impossible May be impractical May be unethical Historical research Census records Court records Police records Church records Diaries, newspapers And more Participant Observation – field work Advantages Rich picture Insider’s view Disadvantages Representativeness Representativeness Lack validity? Lack Most common approach: Sample Disadvantages Survey Don’t observe behavior Don’t control independent variable Advantages Many topics Representative sample Random Sample Everyone has the same chance of being selected Technically: Everyone has a known, non-zero Technically: chance of being selected. chance The WAY a sample is selected is much more The WAY important than the size of the sample important Question Wording is Important “Should laws be passed to eliminate all possibilities Should of special interests giving huge sums of money to candidates? candidates? “…or do groups have a right to contribute to the or candidate they support.” candidate Some Terms Correlation: A relationship between two variables. Cause-and-effect relationships Spurious correlation Criteria for Establishing Causality 1. 2. 3. 4. Association Time priority Nonspurious relation Rationale ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/10/2010 for the course SOC 1004 taught by Professor Mdhughes during the Fall '07 term at Virginia Tech.

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