All pp for Sociology exam 2

All pp for Sociology exam 2 - Social Groups Formal vs...

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Unformatted text preview: Social Groups Formal vs. informal “Street Corner Society”, Whyte Primary vs. secondary In-group vs. out-group “Robber’s Cave Experiment”, Sherif – brought 24 boys together Sherif The Robber’s Cave Experiment 1. Group building 2. Competition a. Intergroup hostility How to Build Intergroup Cooperation? 1. Contact? 2. Common goals Social groups Reference group Normative – may begin to do things that that the group they want to be in do Comparative – judge and evaluate ourselves in terms of our group Social Dilemmas Free-rider problem – not contribute if they can receive benefits for free Social fence – situation where group will benefit if people contribute to a goal but if only a few contribute it doesn’t work Social trap – an incentive to do something that when done by many people has bad consequences for the community Tragedy of the Commons Groupthink Syndrome Irving Janis 1. Illusion of invulnerability 2. Rationalization 3. Inherent morality 4. Shared stereotypes 5. Conformity pressures 6. Self-censorship 7. Illusion of unanimity 8. “Mindguards” 1. An excessive optimism that groups might have. Leads group to take risks 2. Collective efforts to discount info that might lead them to reconsider assumptions 3. Unquestioned belief. Ignore moral concerns 4. Accept stereotypes 5. Direct pressure on members to maintain loyalty to the group 6. May have doubts but sensor self because everyone else agrees with plan 7. Assumption that silence means agreement 8. Members of group that try to protect the group by hiding negative information Muzafer Sherif “autokinetic effect” Social reality vs. Physical reality – feedback we get from people – physical reality ambiguous Solomon Asch Conformity Conformity: Solomon Asch Compare the lengths of lines Only 1 real subject per group About 1/3 of the subjects conformed to the group Obedience Stanley Milgram (electric shock) Learning experiment 65% went “all the way” Reason for Conformity to Authority 1. Children are trained to be obedient 2. People tend to look for the person in charge 3. People tend to feel a loss of responsibility 4. A person may gradually become committed to a line of action. Bureaucracy What are the defining characteristics of bureaucracy? Max Weber, “ideal type” – first to realize emerge of bureaucracy in the common society- rationalization of society Vabor – most essential characteristics of bureaucracy Characteristics of Bureaucracy 1. Specialization – different types of experts 2. Hierarchy of Offices – positions are linked, chain of command, decisions at the top are passed down 3. Rules & regulations – how things are to be done 1. Technical competence – hiring and promotion are based on technical stuff (not about who you know) 2. Impersonality – each person is treated fairly and impartially, emotionally detached 3. Formal, written communications – paperwork, paper-trail Virtues of Bureaucracy Efficiency – efficient use of resources Predictability – trained to follow rules, chain of command Fairness – routine, impartial Complaints About Bureaucracy...
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All pp for Sociology exam 2 - Social Groups Formal vs...

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