mmw3 - lecture note 2-5

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Lecture Two—Early Rome: From Republic to Empire Key Questions: 1. 1) What factors led to the political transitions in early Roman history? 2. 2) What persistent social and political tensions plagued the Roman republic? ** Key political shift (monarch -> republic-> empire) I) Historical Origins of Rome a) Livy’s Conflation of Myth and History (Livy; The early history of Rome) i) Written around 26 BCE at the very beginning of Augustus’s reign *Historian: reflect depress political agenda of their time & Livy applied this too * Ideological agenda of Livy’s History: reinforce & legitimize of change / celebrate Emperor Augustus * in bloody civil war * established national mythology: for Roman empire destiny *use mythology to reinforce political agenda * divine origin of Rome: (foundation of the Rome- escape from troy) & Romulus grew up by wolves * roman expansion is by divine will *miraculous moment ii) A national mythology fit for Rome’s imperial destiny 1. (1) Ancestry to Aeneas 2. (2) Appearance of Romulus after he is killed by some nobles *learned to be a soldiers because its heaven’s will & Rome should be the capital of the world *reinforcing that Rome is the mighty & conquer of the world 3. (3) The doors of the Temple of Janus *At peace(if door is close – pause of expansion) or at war/expansion (if door is open) *Door closed only twice; most part Rome’s history was tied to expansion b) Rome’s Tainted Beginnings – Rome’s Etruscan Legacy *origin of rome is not always noble; Another story ; Livy bring that out but no credibility i) Story of Romulus and Remus * Their mom is raped rather than gods will ; to abandon Romulus & Remus *she wolf = nickname of common prostitute(raised by prostitute) ii) Ancestry of vagabonds * first Romulus found the Rome; family was not aristocrats… but first 100 showed up were the founding father(most were vagabonds= had no home/no root/ no women) * no women : had festivals & invite neighbors & abduct their daughters iii) The Treachery against neighbors 1. (1) Purge(e°°° ) of nobles in Gabii * Rome wanted to take over neighbor * sent his son( Sextus Tarquinius ) & earned trust & sent messenger to father & couldn’t trust messenger & with silence and knocked poppy stems with stems & son understood the sign and killed nobles of Gobbii * son of Gabii : was angry with his father& willing to provide own services iv) The Excesses of Kingship 2. (1) Livy’s assessment of Tarquin, Rome’s last Etruscan king * Livy: not completely negative for Tarquin (oversaw expansion of the rome & built temple of Jupiter) 3. (a) Temple of Jupiter * Site chosen for the temple: found unusual thing(head of a person- all the feature were intacted) – sign * end up very important * Business center & centralized worship place = began by Tarquins 4. (b) Creation of the office of Pontifex(=pope) * perceive Christianity *Poep= control over religious &…………………….
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