CHE201 - Chapter 2

CHE201 - Chapter 2 - Organic Chemistry, 6th Edition L. G....

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Chapter 2 Structure and Properties of Organic Molecules Organic Chemistry , 6 th Edition L. G. Wade, Jr.
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Chapter 2 2 Wave Properties of Electrons • Electrons exhibit properties of both waves and particles. • Wave function, ψ( x, y, z, t ) is a mathematical description of the state of the system (size, shape, orientation). • Amplitude may be positive or negative. • Node: amplitude is zero. •| ψ | 2 : Probability density
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Chapter 2 3 Wave Functions ψ | ψ | 2
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Chapter 2 4 Wave Interactions • Linear combination of atomic orbitals ¾ on different atoms produce molecular orbitals ¾ on the same atom give hybrid orbitals. • Conservation of orbitals. • Waves that are in phase add together. Amplitude increases. • Waves that are out of phase cancel out. =>
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Chapter 2 5 Bonding Region • Electrons are close to both nuclei.
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Chapter 2 6 Sigma Bonding • Electron density lies between the nuclei. • A bond may be formed by s-s , p-p , s-p , or hybridized orbital overlaps. • The bonding MO is lower in energy than the original atomic orbitals. • The antibonding MO is higher in energy than the atomic orbitals. =>
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Chapter 2 7 Bonding Molecular Orbital Two hydrogens, 1 s constructive overlap =>
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Chapter 2 8 Anti-Bonding Molecular Orbital Two hydrogens, destructive overlap. =>
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Chapter 2 9 H 2 : s-s overlap =>
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Chapter 2 10 Cl 2 : p-p overlap => Constructive overlap along the same axis forms a sigma bond.
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Chapter 2 11 HCl: s-p overlap
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Chapter 2 12 Pi Bonding • Pi bonds form after sigma bonds. • Sideways overlap of parallel p orbitals.
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Chapter 2 13 Multiple Bonds • A double bond (2 pairs of shared electrons) consists of a sigma bond and a pi bond. • A triple bond (3 pairs of shared electrons) consists of a sigma bond and two pi bonds. =>
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Chapter 2 14 Molecular Shapes • Bond angles cannot be explained with simple s and p orbitals.
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This note was uploaded on 10/10/2010 for the course CHE 201 taught by Professor Bong during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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CHE201 - Chapter 2 - Organic Chemistry, 6th Edition L. G....

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