CHE202 - Chapter 12

CHE202 - Chapter 12 - Organic Chemistry, 6th Edition L. G....

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Dr. Khalid Ahsan University at Buffalo ã 2006, Prentice Hall Organic Chemistry , 6 th Edition L. G. Wade, Jr.
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Spectroscopy is an analytical technique which  helps determine structure. It destroys little or no sample. The amount of light absorbed by the sample is  measured as wavelength is varied.                                                            => Chapter 12 2
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Infrared (IR) spectroscopy measures the bond  vibration frequencies in a molecule and is used to  determine the functional group. Mass spectrometry (MS) fragments the molecule  and measures the masses. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy  detects signals from hydrogen atoms and can be  used to distinguish isomers.  Ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy uses electron  transitions to determine bonding patterns.  => Chapter 12 3
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Examples: X rays, microwaves, radio waves,  visible light, IR, and UV. Frequency and wavelength are inversely  proportional. c  =  λν , where  c  is the speed of light. Energy per photon =  h ν , where  h  is Planck’s  constant, 6.62 x 10 -37  kJ•sec.                                                                         => Chapter 12 4
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Chapter 12 5 =>
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Just below red in the visible region. Wavelengths usually 2.5-25  μ m. More common units are wavenumbers, or cm -1 the reciprocal of the wavelength in centimeters. Wavenumbers are proportional to frequency and  energy.                         => Chapter 12 6
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Covalent bonds vibrate at only certain allowable  frequencies. Chapter 12 7 =>
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Frequency decreases with increasing atomic  mass. Frequency increases with increasing bond  energy.                                        => Chapter 12 8
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n  atoms usually has 3 - 6  fundamental vibrational modes. Chapter 12
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This note was uploaded on 10/10/2010 for the course CHE 202 taught by Professor Richard during the Spring '05 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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CHE202 - Chapter 12 - Organic Chemistry, 6th Edition L. G....

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