APY107 - Exam 3 Study Guide

APY107 - Exam 3 Study Guide - APY107 Exam 3 Study Guide...

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Unformatted text preview: APY107 Exam 3 Study Guide Homo erectus: Dispersal & Adaptation- Homo erectus o 1.8-0.3 mya o East Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania), South Africa, Asia Fi rst to leave Africa o First one was found in Java o Anatomical features: increase in brain size, more rounded skull, broad in the back, kelling (more prominent in Asia), not as prognathic (mouth not much farther than nose), big brow ridge o Primitive features: robust browridges, receding forehead, flattened skull relative to modern humans, broad & flat face, still no chin o Derived features: smaller, less prognathic face, higher skull than earlier hominid species, smaller and shorter ramus of the mandible, smaller teeth than australopithcines, inner ear system similar to modern times more human-like features developed o Unique derived features: larger browridges, a longitudinal ridge called a sagittal keel, running along top of skull, enormously thick bones on top of the skull, a horizontal ridge at the back of the skull called the occipital torus o Reduction in the size of molars compared with incisors, larger browridges and occipital area, indicate tearing and biting with incisors (pressure on front teeth) o Comparisons of brain size: H. erectus 900 cc (Africa 1.8 mya) H. erectus 1100 cc (Asia 300 tya) H. habilis 630 cc Modern humans 1400 cc o First hominid with projecting nose, probably to conserve waterwhen moist air cools inside the nose, some of the water condenses and remains in the body rather than being exhaled o The Turkana Boy (Nariokotome) Probably the most complete Stood about 54projecting growth patterns, 6 tall as an adult Long legs and narrow hips and shoulders Openings in vertebrae for spinal cord significantly smaller than modern humansless control of breathing than modern humans (and perhaps a lack of language) Muscular body Arms are definitely shorter compared to Lucy o Pelvic ratio to size of newborn head same in H. erectus and modern humanspremature births and extended maternal dependency o H. erectus much less sexually dimorphic than previous hominids (males only 20-30% larger than females) o Less competition among males for access to females, monogamous mating system with substantial paternal investment in offspring o First discovered in Java by Eugene Dubois Pithecanthropus erectus Originally dated to 500,000 yrs, now dated to 1.7 mya o Zhoukodian, China Davidson Black Ritual cannibalism, or giant hyena dinner? o H. erectus enetered Europe at least 800,000 ya o Earlier migrants? Dmanisi site 1.7 mya Dmanisi skulls show blend of H. habilis and H. erectus features o Similarity between Java and Olduvai (H. habilis) mandibles o Regional variability or two separate species? In E. Asian fossils derived features that characterize H. erectus more exaggerated than in African forms- Cultural Evolution o Acheulean toolkit 1.4mya to 300 tya Simply oldowan choppers and flakes...
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This note was uploaded on 10/10/2010 for the course APY 107 taught by Professor Krumrine during the Fall '09 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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APY107 - Exam 3 Study Guide - APY107 Exam 3 Study Guide...

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