General Technical Terms

General Technical Terms - Computer Science 330 Study Guide...

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Computer Science 330 Study Guide General Technical Terms Embedded Computer – A computer inside another device used for running one predetermined application or collection of software. Desktop Computer – A computer designed for use by an individual, usually incorporating a graphics display, keyboard, and mouse. Server – A computer used for running larger programs for multiple users, often simultaneously, and typically accessed only via a network. Supercomputer – A class of computers with the highest performance and cost; they are configured as servers and typically cost millions of dollars. Instruction Set Architecture – An ISA is the programmer-visible interface to a computer; it is the complete set of instructions available to the machine language programmer, including the definition of the operations, operand data types and representation, memory and register storage spaces, I/O, and instruction representation and addressing modes. Memory – The storage area in which the programs are kept when they are running and they contain the data need by the running programs. DRAM – Memory built as an integrated circuit; it provides random access to any location. SRAM – Memory built as an integrated circuit; generally faster and more expensive than DRAM. Cache Memory – A small, fast memory that acts as a buffer for a slower, larger memory. Primary Memory / Main Memory – Memory used to hold programs while they are running; typically consists of DRAM in today’s computers. Secondary Memory – Nonvolatile memory used to store programs and data between runs; typically consists of magnetic disks in today’s computers. Magnetic Disk/Hard Disk – A form of nonvolatile secondary memory composed of rotating platters coated with a magnetic recording material. Transistor – Is an on/off switch controlled by an electric signal.
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General Technical Terms - Computer Science 330 Study Guide...

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