Unformatted text preview: Arguments from Authority Arguments Chapter 4 Weston, A. (2000). A rulebook for Weston, arguments. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett arguments. Hackett 1. 1. 2. 3. 3. Person A claims that P occurs Person A is a respected scientist or other Person authority Therefore, P is true. Therefore, My friend Chuck says that the USA is the My best country in the world. best Chuck has travelled to every country in the Chuck world Therefore, the USA is the best country in Therefore, the world. the 1. 1. 2. 3. 3. Characteristics of a good argument from authority: from
1. Sources should be cited. Sources cited Sources must have knowledge and expertise Sources in the subject: they must be qualified. qualified Sources should be impartial. Sources impartial 1. 1. Two additional checks Two 1. Cross check your sources. Personal attacks do not disqualify a Personal source. source. 1. Example 1 Example
Aristotle said that heavier objects fall Aristotle faster than light objects. Therefore it must be true! Therefore Example 2 Example The Prime Minister said that it's easily The possible to live on a minimum wage job, so we don't need to raise the minimum wage. wage. Group Log-week 6
1. 1. ‘Women and men are not physically and emotionally identical. Therefore, ‘Women women and men are not entitled to the same rights and opportunities.’ women Look at Chapter 1 in Weston. Is this a strong or weak argument? Why? (5 Look lines) lines) ‘The Gulf region is a hotbed of terrorism attacks. In the last decade there ‘The have been several attacks in various countries.’ have Discuss and evaluate this argument with your group, using the 4 criteria Discuss described when testing Arguments by Example in Chapter 2 in Weston. (6 lines) lines) ‘There are more overweight people today in the USA than there were ten ‘There years ago. My cousin told me so and he’s a doctor.’ Is this an argument by analogy, example, or from authority? Is it a strong or weak argument? Why? How would you make this argument rock-solid? (8 lines) How Public-opinion polls are often taken to predict the outcome of presidential Public-opinion contests in the USA. Names are taken from telephone listings and from automobile registration lists and these people are contacted. Sometimes the predictions turn out to be wrong. Why? (See Weston, Chapter 2) (6 lines) Why? 2. 3. 4. Homework Homework Group Leaders write up Group Log-week 6 Students read Diestler, Chapters 3 & 4 Students prepare Assignment 2 Students Assignment ASSIGNMENT 2 ASSIGNMENT Topic: analyze and evaluate an argument essay Resources: use Diestler, Chapters 1- 2 Structure: complete sentence, paragraph Structure: answers (see BB for details) answers Length: 2 pages Grade weight: 10% Post copy to BB + hard copy in class Due date: Start of class in week 7 ASSIGNMENT 2 ASSIGNMENT
After reading the essay on smoking answer the following questions: What is the issue? (1-2 lines) What What is the writer’s conclusion about the issue? (1-2 lines) What are the reasons the writer uses to support the conclusion? (6 lines) What What are the reasons the writer uses to oppose the conclusion? (4 lines) Are the reasons and evidence adequate to support the conclusion? Why or why not? Are Name and discuss 4 fallacies he uses. (see Week 3 Lecture Slides) (8 lines) Name Do you agree or disagree with the conclusion? Why or why not? What should the Do writer do to make the essay arguments stronger? (8 lines) writer ...
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