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Unformatted text preview: Inductive Generalizations: Inductive Generalizations: Controlled Studies and Analogies
Chapter 5 Diestler, S. (2009). Becoming a critical thinker. Upper Saddle River, NJ : Pearson Components of a Research Study Components of a Research Study
1. Characteristic of interest = what you want to find out 2. Target population= whom you are studying 3. Sample = representative members of population Good research design has… Good research design has…
1. A question (characteristic of interest) What is the effect of the new drug Z on migraine headaches? 1. (guesses about what research will discover) The drug Z will shorten migraine headaches caused by stress. A hypothesis 3. A random and 3. representative sample with a. control group b. experimental group
(treatment or variable) (no treatment or placebo) 1.. 1 Data (actual observations from the study) Conclusion (data is compiled and interpreted) 1. Note: Note:
1. Independent variable is the only treatment/factor that is different between the control group and the experimental group. 2. Researchers look at implications of their findings to consider further research to deal with questions raised by study. When evaluating research findings, When evaluating research findings, look at these 8 items….
1. sample size
(preliminary study with 20 people, major study with 1000 people) 2. reliability of study 3. alternative explanations of findings 4. statistical significance of results (blind studies where subjects do not know which group they are in) (if 10% more subjects in control group reacted to variable we say that there is a 95% probability that the variable caused the change. This means the result was statistically significant) 5. duplication by other researchers 5. duplication by other researchers (if they can’t, then results are unreliable) 6. claims that the study proves more than it is designed to prove 7. organization or institution conducting the research (is it a respected organization?)
1. researcher bias (who is paying for the research? who will benefit?) Evaluating is essential when Evaluating is essential when Dealing with controversial research findings. Good critical thinkers question everything. Use of Authority: Expert Testimony Use of Authority: Expert Testimony An expert has… Friends and acquaintances who can Friends and acquaintances who can also be consulted…. Expert friend = opinion leader (This is a friend whose advice is asked because she is considered to be more knowledgeable about X.) The twostep flow of information… The Information sources Magazines/internet/books/tv/newspaper The public Opinion leaders friends/parents/teachers/experts Some things to be aware of when Some things to be aware of when looking at expert testimony… 1. experts who are in the wrong field of expertise 2. experts used who are not recognized as experts (keeping up to date is important, “Dr ?”) 3. experts who are paid for their testimony (may be biased such as oil, pollution, global warming) 4. experts who are biased 5. experts who are not realistic in limiting their expertise (specialization) 6. expert testimony that is contradicted by equally expert testimony (pp.185 189) Reasoning by Analogy Reasoning by Assumes that what is true in one instance will also hold true in a similar context: A is to B as C is to D Why is reasoning by analogy useful? Why is reasoning by analogy useful?
1. It helps us explain new or difficult ideas, or situations because we compare it to similar ideas that are more familiar. 2. It helps us give reasons for a conclusion because it shows what has or has not worked in another context. Examples Examples When rats are confined to an overcrowded cage they exhibit antisocial behavior = when humans are in overcrowded conditions crime will result Prohibition (alcohol control) didn’t work in the USA in the 1920’s = making drugs illegal today won’t work either and simply means people will get them from somewhere else If we drop the speed limit for people in with fast cars = then we can also drop the alcohol ban for those who want to drink and we can allow people who own guns to use them ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2010 for the course MIS UNIV1212 taught by Professor Brucewells during the Fall '09 term at Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Dhahran.
- Fall '09