Unformatted text preview: Arguments about Arguments Causes Causes
Chapter 5 Weston, A. (2000). A rulebook for arguments. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett What are Cause & Effect? What Cause Effect Cause = situation/circumstance that makes something happen Effect = the result Think…
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B C Eating a full breakfast is correlated with Longer life Therefore a full breakfast leads to longer life? What is a correlation? What correlation Correlation = evidence for claims/ conclusions about causes that looks at the relationship between two events Rules for an Argument About Causes
1. Explain how A causes B including why it makes sense for A to cause B. E.g. Most of my openminded friends read a lot. Therefore, reading causes openmindedness.
1. Select the most likely cause including explanations that go along with bestestablished beliefs. E.g. After thunderstorms in certain States in the USA frogs fall out of the sky. Therefore, thunderstorms produce frogs. 3. Remember: correlated events are sometimes coincidental Eating an ice cream Having a bad night’s sleep Catching a cold 1. Remember: sometimes correlated events may have a common cause
A C B A common cause? Over the past 20 years students have watched more and more television Students’ college scores have dropped Keep in mind: 2 correlated events can cause each other
B A People getting fat Which one is the cause? People smoking 6. Be aware: Causes may be complex – there may be many causes ...
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- Fall '09
- Causality, Correlation does not imply causation, Indianapolis, correlated events