W12-Weston Ch5-arguments about causes

W12-Weston Ch5-arguments about causes - Arguments about...

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Unformatted text preview: Arguments about Arguments Causes Causes Chapter 5 Weston, A. (2000). A rulebook for arguments. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett What are Cause & Effect? What Cause Effect Cause = situation/circumstance that makes something happen Effect = the result Think… A Flow Chart! B C Eating a full breakfast is correlated with Longer life Therefore a full breakfast leads to longer life? What is a correlation? What correlation Correlation = evidence for claims/ conclusions about causes that looks at the relationship between two events Rules for an Argument About Causes 1. Explain how A causes B­ including why it makes sense for A to cause B. E.g. Most of my open­minded friends read a lot. Therefore, reading causes open­mindedness. 1. Select the most likely cause­ including explanations that go along with best­established beliefs. E.g. After thunderstorms in certain States in the USA frogs fall out of the sky. Therefore, thunderstorms produce frogs. 3. Remember: correlated events are sometimes coincidental Eating an ice cream Having a bad night’s sleep Catching a cold 1. Remember: sometimes correlated events may have a common cause A C B A common cause? Over the past 20 years students have watched more and more television Students’ college scores have dropped Keep in mind: 2 correlated events can cause each other 1. B A People getting fat Which one is the cause? People smoking 6. Be aware: Causes may be complex – there may be many causes ...
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