Unformatted text preview: Values and Ethics Values Part 1 Overview Overview Value Assumptions Conflicts between Value Assumptions Value Priorities Assumptions Assumptions Assumptions are ideas we take for Assumptions granted. granted. There are two types: Value Assumptions are beliefs about how the world should be. the Reality Assumptions are beliefs about how the world really is. the Toulmin’s Model for Discovering Assumptions Assumptions Claims: the individuals position on an issue issue Reasons: direct statements that provide evidence for the claim evidence Warrants: the assumptions (value or reality) made by the speaker or writer that connect claims and reasons. connect Be careful walking on that floor – it was just washed. it Claim: Be careful walking on that floor. Reason: It was just washed. Warrant 1: Floors that have been newly washed are slippery (reality assumption) washed Warrant 2: I don’t want you to slip and fall because your safety is important to me (value assumption) (value Identify the warrant in this argument: argument: Claim: Russia would violate the proposed Claim: ban on nuclear weapons testing. ban Reason: Russia has violated 50 of 52 Reason: International Agreements. International Warrant: ??? Warrant: Past violations predict that future violations are likely. future This warrant is an example of a This reality assumption. assumption. Reality assumptions reflect what a person takes for granted as facts. takes Identify the warrant in this argument: argument: Claim: You need to move back. Claim: Reason: The line begins back there. Warrant: ??? People should take their turn in line, in order to respect the ideal of fairness to everyone. to This warrant is an example of a This value assumption. assumption. Value assumptions reflect a person’s opinion on which values are most important about an issue. important When Assumptions Disagree When When assumptions are controversial and When might not be agreed upon, they need to be explicitly acknowledged and defended. explicitly Support for assumptions is called backing. Support backing. In cases of disagreement, we seek to find In the best assumption for the given situation. situation. Case Study: Children’s Internet Use in the Public Library Use Claim : There should be no restrictions on Claim public library access to the internet for children. children. Reason: Children need to do research on Reason: library computers. library Warrant? Case Study (cont-) Case Claim : There should be restrictions on Claim public library access to the internet for children. children. Reason: Pornographic material is easily Reason: available on the internet. available Warrant? Choosing the Best Assumption Choosing Warrant 1: Access to information is Warrant important for young students. important Warrant 2: The protection of children from Warrant inappropriate material is important. inappropriate Value Assumptions & Conflicts Value Many arguments are based on strongly Many held values. To resolve these arguments, each side’s values must first be: each Understood Respected Right, Wrong, or Neither? Right, Some arguments involve two sets of Some values which are both valid. In these cases, we have to choose which In value to give priority to in a particular situation. situation. This is called value prioritization. This value ...
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- Fall '09
- Logic, assumptions, value assumptions