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Unformatted text preview: Persuasive Speaking Persuasive and Problem Solving Problem
Chapter 10 Diestler, S. (2009). Becoming a critical thinker. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Outline • Dealing with Speech Fear • Knowing Your Audience • The Three Elements of a Persuasive Argument • Making Good Decisions • Problem Solving Dealing with Speech Fear • Choose a topic you believe in • Prepare well • Practice the speech so you know it well: use note cards use relaxation techniques practice the speech in front of mirror use positive selftalk • Believe that everyone wants you to succeed Knowing Your Audience • Speak at the English level of your audience • Use stories, jokes, and facts that your audience will appreciate • Consider the knowledge level of the audience concerning your topic • Consider how important your presentation will be for the audience • Are you trying to inform or persuade them? The Three Elements of a The Persuasive Argument Persuasive
1. Ethos: speaker credibility Can be clearly heard Well prepared Easy to understand Use language and examples that the audience understands • Have few distracting mannerisms • Dress appropriately • • • • 2. Logos – logical organization/reasoning • Interesting introduction using a quote, story, statistic, joke, question, or statement • Thesis statement early in the speech • Explain each key point with examples • Use transitions between topics • Review key points during conclusion • Powerful concluding statement with a quote or a call to action 3. Pathos – emotional appeal • Hearing statistics about victims of speeding drivers is less powerful than hearing a personal story of a victim • Speakers can appeal to 5 various emotional needs of an audience: Physical Needs “Imagine a world in which your children would not have enough food or water survive?” Safety Needs Show graphic examples of accidents that have occurred at a dangerous intersection where the speaker is advocating for a stoplight Social Needs Speakers can give examples of children of foreign races who have been excluded from school sports teams Selfesteem Needs Speakers can motivate audience members by promising to give them valuable skills that will make them more effective workers Selfactualization Needs Speakers can appeal to audience members’ desire to become more personally developed by using examples of people who have taken on challenges or new professions late in life Making Good Decisions Step 1 • Define the dilemma in the form of an issue. Eg. Should I marry Nassrin or Noor? Step 2 • Look at the long term objective. What do I want this choice to accomplish in my life? Eg. I want to live a long happy Islamic life. Other objectives? Step 3 • Brainstorm the factors which are most important to you in selecting your wife. List such factors and give each factor a score from 110, based on its importance. Eg. • Beauty • Neatness • Religiosity • Farsightedness • Intelligence Love Respect to my family Patience Personality Loyalty Step 4 • Rank your factors from most to least important based upon your scores. State reasons for your choices concerning each of your factors. Eg. Religiosity 1 Beauty 2 Love 3 Personality 4 Intelligence 5 Respect to my family 6 Loyalty 7 Patience 8 Neatness 9 Farsightedness 10 Step 5 • Now decide which woman is better on each of your factors. Add up each woman’s scores. The lowest total wins. Eg. Nassrin Beauty 2 Love 3 Respect to my family 6 Religiosity 1 Intelligence 5 Personality 4 Noor Love 3 Personality 4 Religiosity 1 Patience 8 Respect to my family 6 Beauty 2 Step 6 • Which woman had the lowest total score? • Again, which woman would best meet your long term objectives? • Make your final decision. Problem Solving
• • • • • • How do you define the word “problem?” How do you perceive problems? Are they always avoidable? If not, what is your attitude towards them? Is there anything positive about problems? Whom or what do people turn to when they encounter problems? ...
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- Fall '09