LGW2EChapter4figures

LGW2EChapter4figures - Chapter 4 Circuit-Switching Networks...

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Chapter 4 Circuit-Switching Networks Chapter Figures
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Leon-Garcia/Widjaja Communication Networks (a) (b) B C A B C A B C A MUX B C A MUX Figure 4.1
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Leon-Garcia/Widjaja Communication Networks C f B f A f W u W u 0 0 (a) 0 W u A C B f W 0 (b) Figure 4.2
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Leon-Garcia/Widjaja Communication Networks (a) t A 1 A 2 3 T 0 T 6 T t B 1 B 2 3 T 0 T 6 T t C 1 C 2 3 T 0 T 6 T (b) B 1 C 1 A 2 C 2 B 2 A 1 t 0 T 1 T 2T 3 T 4 T 5 T 6 T Figure 4.3
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Leon-Garcia/Widjaja Communication Networks 2 24 1 1 2 24 24 b 1 2 . . . b 23 22 Frame 24 . . . MUX MUX Figure 4.4
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Leon-Garcia/Widjaja Communication Networks M13 Multiplex x28 M23 Multiplex x7 Primary multiplex e.g., digital switch 24 channel PCM M12 Multiplex x4 DS3 44.736 Mbps DS1 1.544 Mbps DS2 6.312 Mbps DS3 44.736 Mbps North American digital hierarchy . . . 4th order multiplex x4 2nd order multiplex x4 3rd order multiplex x4 34.368 Mbps 2.048 Mbps 8.448 Mbps 139.264 Mbps CEPT 1 CEPT 4 European digital hierarchy Primary multiplex e.g., digital switch 30 channel PCM Figure 4.5
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Leon-Garcia/Widjaja Communication Networks 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 t MUX Figure 4.6
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Leon-Garcia/Widjaja Communication Networks λ 1 λ 2 λ m Optical MUX λ 1 λ 2 λ m Optical deMUX λ 1 λ 2 . λ m Optical fiber Figure 4.7
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Leon-Garcia/Widjaja Communication Networks Figure 4.8
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Leon-Garcia/Widjaja Communication Networks Figure 4.9
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Leon-Garcia/Widjaja Communication Networks Low-speed mapping function DS1 DS2 CEPT-1 STS-1 51.84 Mbps Medium speed mapping function DS3 44.736 STS-1 High- speed mapping function CEPT-4 139.264 STS-1 STS-1 STS-1 STS-3c ATM or POS STS-3c High- speed mapping function STS-1 STS-1 STS-1 . . . OC- n Scrambler E/O STS- n MUX Figure 4.10
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Leon-Garcia/Widjaja Communication Networks PTE LTE STE STS-1 Path STS Line Section Section STE = Section Terminating Equipment, for example, a repeater/regenerator LTE = Line Terminating Equipment, for example, a STS-1 to STS-3 multiplexer PTE = Path Terminating Equipment, for example, an STS-1 multiplexer MUX MUX Reg Reg Reg SONET terminal (a) STE STE LTE PTE SONET terminal Optical Section Optical Section Optical Section Optical Section Line Optical Section Line Optical Section Line Path Optical Section Line Path (b) Figure 4.11
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Leon-Garcia/Widjaja Communication Networks A 2 B 1 A 1 87B Information payload 9 rows 125 µ s Transport overhead 90 bytes Section overhead 3rows Line overhead 6rows H 1 H 2 H 3 B 2 K 1 K 2 Figure 4.12
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Leon-Garcia/Widjaja Communication Networks Pointer 87 Columns 9 Rows First column is path overhead Synchronous payload envelope Frame k Frame k +1 Pointer First octet Last octet Figure 4.13
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Leon-Garcia/Widjaja Communication Networks Frame k Frame k + 1 First octet of SPE Pointer (a) Negative byte stuffing Pointer Stuff byte First octet of SPE (b) Positive byte stuffing First octet of SPE Pointer Pointer Stuff byte First octet of SPE Frame k Frame k + 1 Figure 4.14
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LGW2EChapter4figures - Chapter 4 Circuit-Switching Networks...

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