PSYC 220 Exam 2 Study Guide - PSYC 220 Fall 2010 Exam 2...

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PSYC 220 Fall 2010 Exam 2 Study Guide What are the various types of stem cells (totipotent etc.), and how are they different? Totipotent - can potentially become any type of cell in the organism; 4 days after fertilization Pluripotent – can still become most types of cells; 7-10 days after fertilization Multipotent - Can form nervous system cells (neurons & glia), but not others (ex. skin); 14 days What processes occur in nervous system development before birth? What about after birth… In adulthood? Human CNS begins to form when embryo is about 2 weeks old; dorsal surface thickens and long thin lips rise, curl and merge to form neural tube that surrounds a fluid-filled cavity. As tube sinks under surface of skin, forward end enlarges and differentiates into hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain. The rest becomes the spinal cord. Fluid-filled cavity within neural tube becomes the central canal of the spinal cord and the 4 ventricles of the brain, containing the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). What processes underlie the development of neurons? Be able to describe each process. When does each process occur during development? Do the processes overlap? Before birth: Proliferation – division of nerve cells to produce more cells. Migration – cells that have differentiated as neurons or glia move to where they need to be. Differentiation – primitive neuron forms its axon and dendrites; axon grows first and the neuron usually tows its growing axon along like a tail. Dendrites form when neuron fully migrates.
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