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1 Published in Advances in Psychology Research, F. Columbus (Editor). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers. 2008 Cultural Psychology, Cross-cultural Psychology, Indigenous PsychologyiCarl Ratner Introduction Cultural psychology, cross-cultural psychology, and indigenous psychology are the major psychological approaches to studying the relationship between culture and psychology. The three approaches have developed in relative isolation from each other, and each has accumulated a substantial corpus of theoretical and empirical work. The time is ripe for assessing and comparing these similar yet different approaches. Indeed, some confusion reigns concerning why all three exist, how they compare, and whether they can be synthesized to form a unified study of culture and psychology. This chapter compares the similarities and differences of the three approaches, and it assesses their strengths and weaknesses. My goal is to use the comparison to select the most useful and valid elements and combine them in a coherent, logically consistent, valid paradigm for understanding the relation of culture and psychology. I argue that this goal is more useful and scientific than eclectically combining incongruent, flawed theories wholesale; or minimizing their differences in a false picture of basic harmony. Since the objective of the chapter is a paradigm of general principles, the comparison of the three approaches shall analyze their treatment of broad issues. These include the nature of culture, the nature of psychology, the manner in which cultural factors organize psychology, the manner in which psychology guides cultural behavior, the nature of agency, what kind of data is most revealing of the cultural organization of psychology, is a general science of cultural psychology possible or does each culture require a distinctive theory and methodology? These broad issues are indispensable for conceptualizing and researching the cultural character of psychology. The chapter demonstrates that cultural psychology is the most comprehensive and valid of the three approaches and should be used as the foundation of a paradigm. At the same time, it has gaps that can be filled in by contributions from cross-cultural psychology and indigenous psychology. These must be reconstituted so as to be congruent with the framework of cultural psychology.