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SEQ CHAPTER \h \r 1 BIOL 1107 Lecture #41 04-21-10 Study Questions for Lecture #41 04-21-10 After attending lecture and after reading and studying Chapter 23 can you…. . Explain why the majority of point mutations are harmless Explain how sexual recombination generates genetic variability Define the terms population, species, gene pool, relative fitness, and neutral variation List the five conditions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium Apply the Hardy-Weinberg equation to a population genetics problem Explain why natural selection is the only mechanism that consistently produces adaptive change Explain the role of population size in genetic drift Distinguish among the following sets of terms: directional, disruptive, and stabilizing selection; intrasexual and intersexual selection List four reasons why natural selection cannot produce perfect organisms A. Population Genetics 1. The Modern Synthesis integrates Darwinian selection and Mendelian inheritance. 2. A population’s gene pool is defined by its allele frequencies. 3. The Hardy-Weinberg Theorem describes a nonevolving population. B. Causes of Microevolution 1. Microevolution is a change in a population’s allele frequencies 2. The two main causes of microevolution are genetic drift and natural selection . C. Genetic Variation, the Substrate for Natural Selection 1. Genetic variation occurs within and between populations 2. Mutation and sexual recombination generate genetic variation. 3. Diploidy and balanced polymorphism preserve variation D. A Closer Look at Natural Selection as the Mechanism of Adaptive Evolution 1. Fitness is the contribution that an individual makes to the next generation. 2. The effect of selection can be directional, diversifying, or stabilizing 3. Natural selection maintains sexual reproduction. 4. Sexual selection may lead to secondary differences between the sexes. 5. Natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms Introduction tc "Introduction" It is the population, not its individuals, that evolves. Evolution on the scale of populations, called microevolution, is defined as a change in the allele frequencies in a population. A. Population Genetics tc "A. Population Genetics " \l 2
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The Origin of Species convinced most biologists that species are the products of evolution, but acceptance of natural selection as the main mechanism of evolution was more difficult. What was missing in Darwin’s explanation was an understanding of inheritance that could explain how chance variations arise in a population while also accounting for the precise transmission of these variations from parents to offspring. 1. The modern evolutionary synthesis integrated Darwinian selection and Mendelian inheritance An important turning point for evolutionary theory was the birth of population genetics , which emphasizes the extensive genetic variation within populations and recognizes the importance of quantitative characters. The modern synthesis emphasizes:
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2010 for the course BIO 3453 taught by Professor Dervartarian during the Spring '09 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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