L#41%2004-21-10%20Ch23%20evolution%20of%20populations

L#41%2004-21-10%20Ch23%20evolution%20of%20populations -...

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Unformatted text preview: Biology 1107 Lecture #41 04-21-10 Chapter 23 The evolution of populations The Smallest Unit of Evolution • Genetic variations in populations contribute to evolution • Microevolution is a change in allele frequencies in a population over generations • Concept 23.1: Mutation and sexual reproduction (Meiosis) produce the genetic variation that makes evolution possible • The Hardy-Weinberg Theorem describes a nonevolving population Concept 23.2: The Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to test whether a population is evolving • The first step in testing whether evolution is occurring in a population is to clarify what we mean by a population Gene Pools and Allele Frequencies • A population is a localized group of individuals capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring • A gene pool consists of all the alleles for all loci in a population • The frequency of an allele in a population can be calculated – For diploid organisms, the total number of alleles at a locus is the total number of individuals x 2 – The total number of dominant alleles at a locus is 2 alleles for each homozygous dominant individual plus 1 allele for each heterozygous individual; the same logic applies for recessive alleles • By convention, if there are 2 alleles at a locus, p and q are used to represent their frequencies • The frequency of all alleles in a population will add up to 1 – For example, p + q = 1 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium • The Hardy-Weinberg principle...
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2010 for the course BIO 3453 taught by Professor Dervartarian during the Spring '09 term at UGA.

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L#41%2004-21-10%20Ch23%20evolution%20of%20populations -...

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