L#41%2004-21-10%20Ch23%20evolution%20of%20populations

L#41%2004-21-10%20Ch23%20evolution%20of%20populations -...

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Biology 1107 Lecture #41 04-21-10 Chapter 23 The evolution of populations
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The Smallest Unit of Evolution Genetic variations in populations contribute to evolution Microevolution is a change in allele frequencies in a population over generations
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Concept 23.1: Mutation and sexual reproduction (Meiosis) produce the genetic variation that makes evolution possible
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The Hardy-Weinberg Theorem describes a nonevolving population
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Concept 23.2: The Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to test whether a population is evolving The first step in testing whether evolution is occurring in a population is to clarify what we mean by a population
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Gene Pools and Allele Frequencies A population is a localized group of individuals capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring A gene pool consists of all the alleles for all loci in a population
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The frequency of an allele in a population can be calculated For diploid organisms, the total number of alleles at a locus is the total number of individuals x 2 The total number of dominant alleles at a locus is 2 alleles for each homozygous dominant individual plus 1 allele for each heterozygous individual; the same logic applies for recessive alleles
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By convention, if there are 2 alleles at a locus, p and q are used to represent their frequencies The frequency of all alleles in a population will add up to 1 For example, p + q = 1
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