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lesson18 - Lesson 18 Op-Amps #3 (Section 4-4) (CLO 4-2) The...

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Lesson 18 – Op-Amps #3 (Section 4-4) (CLO 4-2) The third lesson on Op-Amps focuses on cascading Op-Amp building blocks and the concept of loading. Last lesson we developed several Op-Amp building blocks. Those along with the voltage divider are very useful in designing useful active circuits. We need to define what a cascade connection is: It is a series connection of building blocks that act independently even when connected together. Said another way – they are building blocks that do not load each other. Op-Amp building blocks are great insofar as they meet this definition. Let us look at a simple example. The two-Op-Amp circuit consists of an inverter and a weighted inverting summer. Each function is treated separately with the input to the summer being the output of the inverter. The block diagram should make this concept clearer. A second example of two different modules – say a non- inverter feeding a subtractor would be useful. The analysis of simple cascaded modules tends to be easily understood and rarely causes and trouble for students. At this point one needs to bring up the issue of loading. The following example is a good one to use. Both circuits are composed of two modules or stages – a voltage divider and an inverting Op-Amp. In the top case, the voltage divider comes first and is connected to the inverter. In the second case, they are reversed. Intuitively one would expect that the
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lesson18 - Lesson 18 Op-Amps #3 (Section 4-4) (CLO 4-2) The...

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