Introduction to Philosophy (Fall '09) - class#1 for website

Introduction to Philosophy (Fall '09) - class#1 for website...

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Unformatted text preview: PHIL 100 B Introduction to Philosophy Prof. Pete Graham (a.k.a. The Rampage) Organizational Information Meeting Times: Lectures: TuTh 4:00 - 4:50 Room: Thompson 104 Discussion Sections: Fridays My Office Hours: Th 2:30 - 3:30 TAs Jesse Fitts Daniel McGloin Rachel Robison Course Website: Not up yet -- but it will be up by the end of the week. I’ll give you the URL once I’ve put it up. Discussion Sections There are nine discussion sections All are on Friday 9:05 - 9:55 10:10 - 11:00 11:15 - 12:05 11:15 - 12:05 12:20 - 1:10 12:20 - 1:10 1:25 - 2:15 1:25 - 2:15 2:30 - 3:20 Bartlett 61 Bartlett 61 SOM 117 SOM 29 Bartlett 61 Bartlett 212 Bartlett 61 Bartlett 209 Bartlett 61 Course Overview Two Goals Provide an introduction to philosophy Hone analytical skills Two Parts of the Course 1. 2. Part I Part II The Two Parts of the Course Part I Introduction to the methods and different branches Introduction of philosophy of Descartes’s Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes’s Meditations Arguments For And Against The Existence of God Part II The Mind/Body Problem The Free Will Problem Ethics Assessment (I) Two exams Exam 1 = 35% of grade Exam 2 = 35% of grade Two Assignments Each will be worth 15% of grade Assessment (II) Exam Dates: Midterm Exam: October 22nd (in the evening) Final Exam: Final Exam Period The final exam will not be cumulative. The not Midterm Exam Info The midterm exam will be in the evening Times and rooms will be announced No class during the regularly scheduled class time on the No day of the midterm day Assessment (III) Discussion Sections attendance is mandatory and essential to doing attendance well in the course well iit may sometimes (perhaps often!) happen that t material not covered in lecture will be discussed in the discussion sections the attendance will be taken at each meeting attendance poor attendance will lower your grade % Total point deduction for discussion section absences Total = (# of section meetings missed/total # of section meetings)(5 %) good attendance and active/substantial good and participation may raise your grade participation Assessment (IV) NO EXTRA CREDIT! Course Readings Good News: There is no required text All readings will be available online Philosophical writing is often dense, difficult, and Philosophical (sometimes) dry (sometimes) The reading assignments are often short Read the assigned material closely more than Read once before the class in which it will be discussed. before Bad News: Good News: Bad News: Handouts I will often post a handout for a lecture the will night before the lecture. night Homework to be done prior to each lecture: Check the website for any announcements Print out any handouts for the day’s lecture Handouts will be available online in the morning of the Handouts day of the lecture day I will put a copy of today’s power point will presentation on the course website once it is up and running. up Lecture Attendance Some days I’ll take attendance in Some lecture, and some days not. lecture, % Total point deduction for lecture Total absences = (# of absences/total # of times attendance is taken)(%5) times Part I - Introduction to the Branches of Philosophy Core Branches of Philosophy Metaphysics Epistemology Philosophy of Mind Ethics Philosophy of Science Philosophy of Language Logic & Philosophy of Logic Other Areas of Philosophy There are yet other branches of philosophy as well. Description of Branches Metaphysics Ontology What things exist? How do the things that exist relate to the other How things that exist? things Appearance vs. Reality Epistemology What do we know? Are we justified in believing what we believe? If we are justified in believing what we believe, If how is it that we are justified in believing what we believe? believe? Description of Branches Philosophy of Mind What is the relation between mind and body? What is it to believe something? What is it to What desire something? desire What is the nature of consciousness? Ethics What are the principles that govern how we ought What to behave? to What are we morally obliged to do? What things are good and bad? The Branches of Philosophy and the Course Topics Descartes’s Meditations on First Descartes’s Philosophy Philosophy Epistemology Metaphysics Philosophy of Mind Arguments for and Against the Arguments Existence of God Existence Metaphysics The Branches of Philosophy and the Course Topics The Mind/Body Problem Philosophy of Mind The Free Will Problem Metaphysics Ethics Ethics Arguments The stock and trade of philosophy is The arguments. arguments. What is an argument? An argument is a series of propositions meant An to establish another proposition to The series of propositions are the argument’s The premises premises The proposition those premises are offered in an The attempt to establish is the argument’s conclusion conclusion Some Arguments 1. 2. 3. God is conceivable. If God is conceivable, then God exists. Therefore, God exists. If God exists, then there is no unnecessary and If undeserved suffering in the world. undeserved It is not the case that there is no unnecessary and It undeserved suffering in the world. undeserved Therefore, it is not the case that God exists. 1. 2. 3. Validity In philosophy we are particularly interested in a In special class of arguments, namely valid ones. special In philosophy, “valid” has a very specific meaning. A valid argument is one for which it is impossible for valid all of its premises to be true and its conclusion false. all Another way of putting it: a valid argument’s premises entail Another entail its conclusion. its (The truth of the premises of a valid argument guarantee the (The truth of its conclusion.) truth Soundness An argument is sound if and only if An sound (1) (1) (2) (2) iit is valid, and t its premises are actually true. Every sound argument has a true Every conclusion. conclusion. Why? Our Focus: Valid Arguments In this class, when we construct arguments we will In aim to construct sound arguments (valid + true premises). premises). Also, the philosophers we will be discussing are also Also, aiming to construct sound arguments. aiming Though there are many different types of valid Though arguments, we will focus on a couple specific forms of valid arguments. Modus Ponens Some valid arguments are valid merely in Some virtue of their form. virtue Any argument with the following form is Any valid: valid: 1. 2. 3. P If P, then Q Therefore, Q This argument form is known as modus This ponens (MP). ponens Modus Ponens (II) Any argument with the following form is also in Any modus ponens form. modus 1. 2. 3. If P, then Q P Therefore, Q The order of the premises does not matter. Any argument in modus ponens form is valid. And Any so any argument in modus ponens form that has true premises is sound. true Modus Ponens (III) 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. Five is a number greater than four. If five is a number greater than four, then five is a If number greater than two. number Therefore, five is a number greater than two. If five is a number greater than four, then five is a If number greater than two. number Five is a number greater than four. Therefore, five is a number greater than two. ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2010 for the course PHIL 100 taught by Professor Jeremy during the Spring '08 term at UMass (Amherst).

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