Introduction to Philosophy (Fall '09) - class#11

Introduction to Philosophy (Fall '09) - class#11 -...

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Unformatted text preview: Organizational Information First graded assignment will be handed back and First discussed in discussion section tomorrow (10/9). discussed Theology Chapters 1, 2, and 5 (sections I-IV) Theology again again Bartlett 65. Bartlett Reading for next time: William Paley’s Natural Reading Midterm Exam October 22nd at 7pm - 9pm in Midterm There will be no class the during the day on the There day of the midterm. Descartes Meditation 6 Descartes’s first argument for the distinctness of mind and Descartes’s body has two parts: body It is conceivable that my mind exist without my body. If it is conceivable that my mind exist without my body, then it is If possible that my mind exist without my body. possible Therefore, it is possible that my mind exist without my body. 1,2 MP Mind/Body Distinctness Argument Part I 1. 2. 3. Mind/Body Distinctness Argument Part II 1. 2. 3. It is possible that my mind exist without my body. If it is possible that my mind exist without my body, then my mind is If distinct from my body. distinct Therefore, my mind is distinct from my body. 1,2 MP Meditation 6 But the Mind/Body Distinctness Argument is not the But only argument for the distinctness of mind and body in Meditation 6. in There is yet another argument for this conclusion that There Descartes offers in Meditation 6. Descartes The Mental Indivisibility Argument 1. My body is divisible but my mind is not divisible. 2. If my body is divisible but my mind is not divisible, If then my mind is distinct from my body. then 3. Therefore, my mind is distinct from my body. 1,2 MP Arguments for the Existence of God In Descartes’s Meditations on First Philosophy we encountered a number of Philosophy arguments for the existence of God. arguments was the Trademark Argument. was Perhaps Descartes’s most famous argument Perhaps But there were two other arguments that, But though not novel to Descartes, are historically very famous. very The Cosmological Argument The Ontological Argument Arguments for the Existence of God The Three ‘-Ological’ Arguments for the The ‘-Ological’ Existence of God Existence The Ontological Argument The Cosmological Argument The Teleological Argument The Teleological Argument for the The Existence of God is also often referred to as “The Argument from Design”. to Arguments for the Existence of God A priori vs. a posteriori arguments: posteriori An argument is a priori if and only if the An priori justifications for the premises of that argument do not depend on our having any experiences of the actual world actual An argument is a posteriori if and only if the An posteriori justifications for the premises of that argument do depend on our having any experiences of the actual world. The Ontological Argument is an a priori argument for The priori the existence of God. the The Cosmological Argument is….. It’s not so clear whether it is an a priori or an a posteriori It’s posteriori argument. argument. Arguments for the Existence of God The Teleological Argument for the The existence of God is, as we’ll see, an a posteriori argument. posteriori Natural Theology propounds the traditional Theology Teleological Argument for the Existence of God of His famous analogy of the watch William Paley (1743-1805) in William Arguments for the Existence of God “In crossing a heath, suppose I pitched my foot against a stone, and were asked how the stone came to be there, I might possibly answer, that, for anything I knew to the contrary, it had lain there for ever; nor would it, perhaps, be very easy to show the absurdity of this answer. But suppose I had found a watch upon the ground, and it should be inquired how the watch happened to be in that place, I should hardly think of the answer which I had before given, that, for anything I knew, the watch might have always been there. Yet why should not this answer serve for the watch as well as for the stone? Why is it not as admissible in the second case as in the first? For this reason, and for no other, viz., that, when we come to inspect the watch, we perceive (what we could not discover in the stone) that its several parts are framed and put together for a purpose, e.g., that they are so formed and adjusted as to produce motion, and that motion so regulated as to point out the hour of the day; that, if the different parts had been differently shaped from what they are, of a different size from what they are, or placed after any other manner, or in any other order than that in which they are placed, either no motion at all would have been carried on in the machine, or none which would have answered the use that is now served by it.” Arguments for the Existence of God According to Paley, what features does According the watch have that the stone does not? the The watch appears to have been designed The for a purpose, whereas the stone does not appear to have been designed for any purpose whatsoever purpose Arguments for the Existence of God The Teleological Argument 1. The natural world exhibits design. 2. If the natural world exhibits design, If then God designed the natural world. then 3. Therefore, God designed the natural Therefore, world. world. 1,2 MP Arguments for the Existence of God Justification for premise 1: Paley claims that “the works of nature”--animals, Paley plants, and their parts, etc.--exhibit just as much, if not more apparent design for a purpose than does the watch in his example. the “Every observation which was made in our first Every chapter concerning the watch may be repeated with strict propriety concerning the eye, concerning animals, concerning plants, concerning, indeed, all the organized parts of the works of nature.” works Arguments for the Existence of God Justification for premise 2: Paley takes it to be obvious that there cannot be Paley design without there having been a designer of that design. that “There cannot be design without a designer…. There Arrangement, disposition of parts, subservience of means to an end, relation of instruments to a use imply the presences of intelligence and mind.” imply And, according to Paley, the designer of the world And, just is God. just ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2010 for the course PHIL 100 taught by Professor Jeremy during the Spring '08 term at UMass (Amherst).

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