Unformatted text preview: Organizational Information Midterm Exam October 22nd at 7pm - 9pm Midterm in Bartlett 65. in There will be no class the during the day There on the day of the midterm. on Bring a #2 pencil to the exam with you! There will be a review session on There Wednesday October 21st from 7pm-9pm in Bartlett 65. in The review session will begin at 7pm and will The end either when no one has any more questions or 9pm, whichever comes first. questions Review From Last Time In Descartes’s Meditations on First Philosophy we encountered a number of Philosophy arguments for the existence of God. arguments was the Trademark Argument. was Perhaps Descartes’s most famous argument Perhaps But there were two other arguments that, But though not novel to Descartes, are historically very famous. very The Cosmological Argument The Ontological Argument Review From Last Time The Three ‘-Ological’ Arguments for the The ‘-Ological’ Existence of God Existence The Ontological Argument The Cosmological Argument The Teleological Argument The Teleological Argument for the The Existence of God is also often referred to as “The Argument from Design”. to Review From Last Time A priori vs. a posteriori arguments: posteriori An argument is a priori if and only if the An priori justifications for the premises of that argument do not depend on our having any experiences of the actual world actual An argument is a posteriori if and only if the An posteriori justifications for the premises of that argument do depend on our having any experiences of the actual world. The Ontological Argument is an a priori argument for The priori the existence of God. the The Cosmological Argument is….. It’s not so clear whether it is an a priori or an a posteriori It’s posteriori argument. argument. Review From Last Time The Teleological Argument for the The existence of God is, as we’ll see, an a posteriori argument. posteriori Natural Theology propounds the traditional Theology Teleological Argument for the Existence of God of His famous analogy of the watch William Paley (1743-1805) in William Review From Last Time
The Teleological Argument 1. The natural world exhibits design. 2. If the natural world exhibits design, If then God designed the natural world. then 3. Therefore, God designed the natural Therefore, world. world. 1,2 MP Review From Last Time Justification for premise 1: Paley claims that “the works of nature”--animals, Paley plants, and their parts, etc.--exhibit just as much, if not more apparent design for a purpose than does the watch in his example. the “Every observation which was made in our first Every chapter concerning the watch may be repeated with strict propriety concerning the eye, concerning animals, concerning plants, concerning, indeed, all the organized parts of the works of nature.” works Review From Last Time Justification for premise 2: Paley takes it to be obvious that there cannot be Paley design without there having been a designer of that design. that “There cannot be design without a designer…. There Arrangement, disposition of parts, subservience of means to an end, relation of instruments to a use imply the presences of intelligence and mind.” imply And, according to Paley, the designer of the world And, just is God. just Arguments for the Existence of God Many take Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Many by Natural Selection to show how premise 2 of the Teleological Argument is false. is there could be design in the world without there being an intelligent designer such as God. designer Evolution is supposed to explain how Evolution Arguments for the Existence of God But how? Three basic elements to the explanation of Three design in the world via evolution: design
(1) Inheritance: Genetic traits are passed on from Inheritance: parents to children. parents
- There is some (though usually only very slight) There variation in genetic code from parents to children (due to mutation and other genetic phenomena). This variation allows for adaptation over time. variation (1) (2) Survival of the fittest. Lots of time. Arguments for the Existence of God If organisms evolve over long stretches If of time so that the fittest survive, then those fit organisms will appear to have been designed to thrive in those environments. environments. Such organisms will, over time, via natural Such selection, acquire characteristics, perhaps quite complex ones, that will seem as if they had been perfectly designed to carry out certain functions. out Arguments for the Existence of God If the theory of evolution explanation of the If apparent design in the world is correct, then Paley is wrong when in justifying premise 2 of the Teleological Argument he says “There cannot be design without a designer…. Arrangement, disposition of parts, subservience of means to an end, relation of instruments to a use imply the presence of intelligence and mind.” intelligence If the theory of evolution is correct, it explains how If you can get all those things without the presence of intelligence and mind. Arguments for the Existence of God A Comparison of the three “-Ological Comparison Arguments”. Arguments”. What kind of God do they each purport to What establish? establish? For Descartes and Paley: the Christian God What are some of the attributes of the Christian What God (and most other monotheistic Gods, for that matter)? matter)? Omnipotence - all powerful Omniscience - all knowing Omnibenevolence - all good Arguments for the Existence of God Do any of the arguments come close to Do establishing the existence of a God with those properties? those worked, looks best suited to establishing the existence of something like a God with those properties? like Why? Which of the three arguments, if it Which ...
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- Spring '08
- Philosophy, Teleological argument, William Paley