Unformatted text preview: MAP Info Course Number: PHIL 100B Organizational Information
Midterm We will try to get the midterm exam We back to you by next lecture. back Reading for next time J. L. Mackie “Evil and Omnipotence” J. again. again. Properties of the Traditional Theistic God The Theistic God is one with the The following three properties: following Omnipotent Omniscient Omnibenevolent Most contemporary monotheisms affirm Most the existence of a theistic God with those three properties. those Properties of the Traditional Theistic God Definitions: X is omnipotent =def. is omnipotent X can do anything that is possible. that X is omniscient =def. is omniscient there is nothing that is true that X does not know. true X is perfectly X is omnibenevolent =def. is omnibenevolent good. The Argument From Evil
The Argument From Evil 1. If there is an omnipotent, omniscient, and If omnibenevolent God, then there is no unnecessary and undeserved suffering in the world. the 2. It is not the case that there is no It unnecessary and undeserved suffering in the world. the 3. Therefore, it is not the case that there is an Therefore, omnipotent, omniscient, and omnibenevolent God. omnibenevolent 1,2 MT The Argument From Evil Justification for premise 1: If God is omnibenevolent, then, since God’s being If omnibenevolent means God is perfectly good and a perfectly good being would prevent any and all unnecessary and undeserved suffering of which it is aware and can prevent, God will prevent all unnecessary and undeserved suffering of which God is aware and can prevent. suffering But if God exists and is omniscient, it is impossible that there But be any unnecessary and undeserved suffering of which God is unaware. is And if God exists and is omnipotent, it is impossible that And there be any unnecessary and undeserved suffering that God cannot prevent. God So if God exists and is omnibenevolent, omniscient, and So omnipotent, then there is no unnecessary and undeserved suffering. suffering. The Argument From Evil Justification for premise 2: There are many examples of unnecessary There and undeserved suffering in the world: and Innocent children killed by suicide bombers in Innocent Iraq Iraq Innocent children killed in the holocaust Innocent children killed by tsunamis, Innocent earthquakes, volcanoes, etc. earthquakes, Innocent baby fawns burned alive by forest Innocent fires caused by lightning strikes. fires The Argument From Evil How might you deny premise 2? There is no suffering. It is patently false that there is no suffering. All suffering is deserved. Perhaps all this-worldly suffering is punishment for some other- worldly crimes. But what reason is there for thinking that this is true other than a But desire to avoid the conclusion of the Argument from evil? desire All suffering is necessary. Perhaps all this-worldly suffering is necessary for the existence Perhaps of something much better than the suffering that is necessary for it. for Perhaps there are second order goods that suffering makes Perhaps possible. possible. But there are also second order bads that suffering makes But possible. possible. Are the second order goods sufficiently better than the bads to Are warrant God’s allowing them to exist? warrant Even if some suffering is necessary for the second order goods, is Even all of what exists really necessary for it? all The Argument From Evil How might you deny premise 1? The Free Will Defense God grants human beings free will because the God world is better overall with free beings in it than it is without them. is But having free will means that even God cannot But force us not to cause unnecessary and undeserved suffering. undeserved For if God forced us not to cause unnecessary and For undeserved suffering, then we would not truly have free will. will. The Argument From Evil Evaluating the Free Will Defense Is the Free Will Defense Plausible? Is the existence of free will so good that its Is existence outweighs all of the horrible unnecessary and undeserved suffering in the world? world? Even if we grant that God gives us free will and Even that explains why there is all the unnecessary and undeserved suffering in the world that we cause, what about all the unnecessary and undeserved suffering in the world not caused by human not beings? beings? ...
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