Undergraduate History Lecture

Undergraduate History Lecture - An Outline of the Evolution...

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An Outline of the Evolution of Marketing in the U.S. Economy
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Rationale for Examining History To understand the US economy and how it fits into the global economy, one has to first understand how the US economy arose. Our economy is unique in the way marketing evolved. We will look at important time periods based on manufacturing, wholesaling and retailing.
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Up to 1800 Manufacturing -- colonialism, agrarian society, illegal to manufacture. Wholesaling -- Export/import houses on eastern seaboard were dominant. Retailing -- three types existed up to 1800. General Store Trading Post Yankee Peddler
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1800-1860 Manufacturing -- Cottage industry and small scale manufacturing. There was no manufacturer branding. Branding developed in this time period - but in the wholesaling sector. Wholesaling-- Expanding and dominant in this time. Branding begun by wholesalers to differentiate Retailing -- Beginning of limited-line or specialty retailers
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1860-1900 Manufacturing -- Rapid growth. Industrial revolution - about 50-100 years behind Europe. Caused by Civil War. "Age of the Trusts." Branding begun by manufacturers. Wholesaling -- An era of stability or transition. Expansion in far west. Transcontinental railroad completed and great industrial expansion in west. Retailing--Developing of large-scale retailers -department stores with a deep assortment. Urbanization of society. Development of catalog sales.
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1900-1930 Manufacturing -- Tremendous increase in manufacturing capacity. Again due to war - U.S. became "Arsenal of Democracy." Beginnings of national and regional marketing of manufacturer brands. Largely due to national magazines, and by 20's national communications. Beginnings of separation of ownership from control of American industry. Wholesaling -- Decline, Specialization. Retailing -- Rise of the chain store. Struggle for control of channel of distribution. Giant retailers vs. giant manufacturers.
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Manufacturing - - Primary thing in this time period was the Depression. Wholesaling
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Undergraduate History Lecture - An Outline of the Evolution...

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