CHEM_1017___ch.5 - GAS LAWS The molecules in a pure solid...

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GAS LAWS The molecules in a pure solid or pure liquid are packed together very closely. Their volumes cannot be changed appreciably by exerting pressure on them, consequently, they are referred to as the condensed states of matter. In a gas, the distance between molecules is extremely large, compared to the size of the molecule itself, so their volumes can be affected by changes in both temperature and pressure. Gases are mostly empty space .
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Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases Ideal Behavior 1.They behave as point molecules – the molecule itself has no volume. The volume of the gas is made up of the distance between molecules. 2. They act independently of each other – no forces of attraction or repulsion. 3. They are in constant, rapid, random, straight-line motion (Brownian motion), incessantly colliding with each other and with the walls of the container. There is no net loss of kinetic energy, but energy can be transferred from one particle to another. 4. The average kinetic energy (energy of motion) of a collection of gas molecules is directly proportional to the temperature on the Kelvin scale.
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The gas molecules in the earth’s atmosphere are constantly colliding with the surface, and consequently exert a pressure on it. This pressure can be measured with a device known as a barometer .
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Units of Pressure 1 atmosphere = 760 mm Hg 760 Torr 101,325 Pa 101.325 kPa 14.7 lbs/sq. ft. 29.92 in. Hg
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Sea level 1 atm 4 miles 0.5 atm 10 miles 0.2 atm 5.2
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BOYLE’S LAW The volume of a fixed amount of gas maintained constant temperature is inversely proportional to the pressure. PV = C Most often used to describe systems that are changing from one set of conditions to another. At the initial set of conditions, Bolye’s Law states P 1 V 1 = C Boyle’s Law also applies to new set of conditions. P 2 V 2 =C Therefore, P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 1 V P 1 V C P = ×
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A sample of chlorine gas occupies a volume of 946 mL at a pressure of 726 mmHg. What is the pressure of the gas (in mmHg) if the volume is reduced at constant temperature to 154 mL? P 1 x V 1 = P 2 x V 2 P 1 = 726 mmHg V 1 = 946 mL P 2 = ? V 2 = 154 mL P 2 = P 1 x V 1 V 2 726 mmHg x 946 mL 154 mL = = 4460 mmHg 5.3
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CHARLES’ LAW The volume of a fixed amount of gas maintained constant pressure is directly proportional to the temperature. Most often used to describe systems that are changing from one set of conditions to another. At the initial set of conditions, Charles’s Law states Boyle’s Law also applies to new set of conditions. Therefore, V T = × V C T V C T = 1 1 V C T = 2 2 V C T = 1 2 1 2 V V T T =
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A sample of carbon monoxide gas occupies 3.20 L at 125 0 C. At what temperature will the gas occupy a volume of 1.54 L if the pressure remains constant ? V
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CHEM_1017___ch.5 - GAS LAWS The molecules in a pure solid...

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