CHEM 1017 - ch. 10

CHEM 1017 - ch. 10 - CHAPTER 10 - CHEMICAL BONDING II...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 10 - CHEMICAL BONDING II Molecular geometry (shape of the molecule) has an important influence on the chemical and physical properties of molecules. Properties such as density, melting point, boiling point, and chemical reactivity (i.e. what substances will a molecule react with - or will not react with ) are all influenced by the specific arrangement of the atoms within that molecule. Why do molecules assume the particular shapes that they do? BeH 2 is linear H 2 O is bent BH 3 is a flat triangle NH 3 is a pyramid The principle factor governing the geometry of a molecule is the number of electron pairs (either bonding pairs or non-bonding lone pairs) surrounding the central atom in that molecule. Electron pairs are compact bundles of negative charge. We know from the laws of physics that unlike charges tend to attract each other, while like charges tend to repel each other. It is this repulsion effect that causes the electron pairs to try to get as far away from each other as possible. To do this, the orbitals containing these electron pairs undergo a rearrangement a change in size, shape, energy, and direction in space in order to minimize this repulsion. This is referred to as the Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals and is part of the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory. To better understand the nature of these rearrangements, it is convenient to separate molecules into two groups: a. those that containing only bonding pairs of electrons, and b. those that contain both bonding pairs and non-bonding (lone) pairs. For two electron pairs (BeCl 2 ) sp hybridization For three electron pairs (BF 3 ) sp 2 hybridization For four electron pairs (CH 4 ) sp 3 hybridization For five electron pairs (PCl 5 ) dsp 3 hybridization For six electron pairs (SF 6 ) d 2 sp 3 hybridization Class...
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CHEM 1017 - ch. 10 - CHAPTER 10 - CHEMICAL BONDING II...

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