Minerals

Minerals - Minerals 1. Most rocks are composed of crystals,...

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Minerals 1. Most rocks are composed of crystals, which are regular, space-filling stacks of identical chemical units (as shown by cleavage, growth faces, rational ratios of elements, X- ray diffraction, electron microscope, and atomic force microscope). 2. Because atoms must fit, and their ionic charges must balance, there is a large but finite number of ways to stack them. Each possible structure is one mineral. 3. Since Si and O are the most common elements in the crust and mantle, and bond stongly, the most common minerals are based on the silicate tetrahedron Si0 4 -4 , using positive ions or O - sharing to balance the charge. 4. The silicate minerals form 5 structural classes with different Si/O ratios and physical properties: * isolated tetrathedra Positive-ion strategy * single chains of " * double chains of " * sheets of " * 3-D networks of " O-sharing strategy
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1 c:\work\classes\ess1\minerals.doc MINERALS 1. Most rocks are composed of crystals, which are regular, space-filling stacks of identical chemical units (as shown by cleavage, growth faces, rational ratios of elements, X-ray diffraction, electron microscope, and atomic force microscope).
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This note was uploaded on 10/14/2010 for the course ESS ESS1 taught by Professor Bird during the Spring '10 term at UCLA.

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Minerals - Minerals 1. Most rocks are composed of crystals,...

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