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Chapter 4 Nucleic acids and Origins

Chapter 4 Nucleic acids and Origins - Nucleic acids are...

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Nucleotides Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides consisting of a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base. The DNA bases are adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, commonly known as A, T, G, C. In RNA uracil substitutes for thymine, so RNA has A, U, G, C.
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RNA has ribose. DNA has deoxyribose.
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The backbone of DNA and RNA The “backbone” of DNA and RNA consists of the sugars and phosphate groups, bonded by phosphodiester linkages. The phosphate groups link carbon 3′ in one sugar to carbon 5′ in another sugar. The bases project from the backbone. The purine (larger) bases are adenine and guanine, A and G. The pyrimidine (smaller) bases are uracil and cytosine, U and C. RNA is generally single-stranded.
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DNA DNA is a double- stranded helix with complementary hydrogen bonding between (larger) purine (A, G) and (smaller) pyrimidine (T, C) bases: A-T G-C The two strands run in opposite directions. Complementary base pairing is the basis for replication and transcription.
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