EXAM 2 Review - Chapter 3 REVIEW*medium the nutrient...

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Chapter 3 REVIEW *medium: the nutrient material prepared or supplied for the growth of MO in the lab *Culture: the MO tha grow and multiphy in a medium, combo MO and Media *Innoculation: the process of introducting a MO into a fresh, sterile medium in order to initiate the growth *Agar: a polysaccharide derived from seaweed, which is algae *Colony: a visible mass or population of microbial cells arising from a specific microbial species *Colony morphology: *fastidious bacteria: a type of bacteria that requires special media, requires many organic ingredients present in the medium, Example is Nelsseria ghonorrhea *Extracts : means that all the nutrients present in yeast or beef or plants are dissolved in water and evaporated so all the nutrients are concentrated in dry powder *Peptones : partially digested proteins Chapter 4 Review * The difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells: Prokaryotic: -Simple in structure -No membrane bound organelles -No nucleus but has DNA -DNA not enclosed in a membrane -All have cell walls made of peptidoglycan (contains protein-peptido and sugar-glycan) -Size < 1-5 micrometer in diameter Eukaryotic: -Complex in structure -Many organelles -DNA located in membrane bound nucleus -Also have cell wall but none contain peptidoglycan -Size 10~100 micrometer in diameter * The envelope * The 3 major groups of bacteria are: -Gram Negative -Gram Positive -Mycoplasmas
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* They are distinguished from each other based on the # of layers their envelopes are made of * They envelope of each group of bacteria consists of different layers -Gram-Negative: outer membrane, cell wall, and cytoplasmic membrane -Gram-Positive: cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane -Mycoplasmas: cytoplasmic membranes *The Outer Membrane: Structure -Consists of a double layer: an outer layer LPS and an inner layer phospholipids -The outer layer LPS contains a polysaccharide (water loving end) and a lipid called a Lipid A (water hating end) -The lipid A (the lipid portion of the LPS molecule) is also called the endotoxin *The outer Membrane: Function -Protection -Gram-Negative bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics b/c of this outer membrane. They are the only one of the three groups of bacteria that has an outer membrane. *Lipoprotein: in the outer membrane (but the inner layer) and it links the outer membrane to the rest of the envelope.
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