Therestofthebooknotes!!!! - Issues in Aging Abnormal...

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Issues in Aging Abnormal Psychology, Eighth Edition Cultural view of the aged in the U.S.A. is typically negative 0. Aging may have a greater negative impact for 0. Women 1. Minorities 1. Ageism refers to discrimination against any person based on age 2. Can be young or old person Diversity in Aging 2. Levels of “old” 3. Young-old : ages 65-74 4. Old-old : ages 75-84 5. Oldest-old : over age 85 3. The one aspect that the elderly have in common is age 6. The elderly differ from one another as well as from other age groups Measurement Issues in Aging Research 4. Age effects are the consequences of being a given chronological age 5. Cohort effects are the consequences of having been born in a particular year and having grown up during a particular period of time 6. Time-of-measurement effects are confounds that arise because particular historic events have specific effects Brain Disorders in Old Age 7. Dementia refers to a gradual deterioration of intellectual ability that Interferes with social and occupational function 8. Dementia can involve problems in 7. Memory 8. Poor hygiene 9. Language disorder 10.Faulty judgement 11.Delirium (state of mental confusion) Causes of Dementia 9. Alzheimer’s Disease involves a progressive deterioration of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus leading to difficulty in concentration and memory loss 10.Alzheimer’s disease involves 12.Loss of nerve cells within brain due to plaque formation and neurofibrillary tangles 13.Reduced activity of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) Genetics of Alzheimer’s Disease
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11. Chromosome 21 contains a gene that controls the formation of amyloid which forms plaques 14.The chromosome 21 gene accounts for 5% of early onset Alzheimer’s cases and no person with this gene has made it past the age of 65 without developing Alzheimer’s disease 12. Chromosome 19 contains a gene allele that controls the likelihood of developing Alzheimer’s (1=50%, 2=90%) Frontal-Lobe Dementias 0. Frontal-Temporal dementia involves 0. Cognitive impairments of memory 1. Apathy 2. Loss of serotonin neurons in brain (rather than Ach) 1. Frontal-Subcortical dementias include: 3. Parkinson’s disease (muscle tremors) 4. Huntington’s chorea (muscle writhing) 5. Vascular dementia (muscle weakness-stroke) Treatment of Dementia 2. Alzheimer’s Disease has no treatment to halt or reverse the disease 6. Drug studies seek to boost remaining ACh function in brain using 0. Drugs that block the breakdown of ACh 1. Drugs that block the formation of B-amyloid 7. Drugs are used to treat the specific symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (depression, anxiety, sleep disorder) 3. Psychological therapy is to be supportive Delirium 13. Delirium is a clouded state of consciousness involving 15.Difficulty in concentration 16.Disruption of the sleep-waking cycle 17.Incoherent speech 18.Memory impairment for recent events 19.Perceptual disturbances (delusions and hallucinations) 20.Mood/activity swings 14.Mortality rate for delirium is about 40%
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Therestofthebooknotes!!!! - Issues in Aging Abnormal...

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