ChildrensDisorders - Abnormal Psychology, Eighth Edition...

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Abnormal Psychology, Eighth Edition Classification Issues 0. Distinguishing abnormal childhood behavior requires a knowledge from developmental psychology of what is normal for a child at a particular age or stage 1. Disorders can be viewed as categories or on a continuum (dimension) 0. Control represents a dimensional variable 0. Overcontrolled children show emotional inhibition 1. Undercontrolled children show excessive behaviors (extreme aggressiveness) Disorders of Undercontrolled Behavior 0. Undercontrolled behavior is excessive or inappropriate for the situation 1. DSM-IV recognizes two classes of undercontrolled behavior: 0. Attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves 0. An inability to concentrate on task for an appropriate period of time 1. Difficulties in controlling motor movements in class and other situation (fidgeting, talking) ADHD Issues 2. Hyperactive children have difficulties in establishing peer relations 1. Aggressive ADHD children have different social goals (being disruptive) than do non-ADHD peers 3. ADHD can co-occur with learning disabilities 4. ADHD shows within category differences 2. Some children have attention deficit, some have hyperactivity, and some have both 5. ADHD prevalence is 2-7% in US Biological Theories of ADHD 2. Family and twin studies document a role for genetic transmission in ADHD 3. Frontal lobe function is abnormal in ADHD children 1. Frontal lobe is underresponsive to stimulation in ADHD children 2. Frontal lobe is smaller in ADHD children 3. ADHD children do poorly on psychological tests that measure the functioning of the frontal lobe Psychological Theories of ADHD 6. Bettelheim proposed a psychoanalytic view of ADHD in which hyperactivity results from stress brought on by parental personality (authoritarian, impatient, resentful) 7. Learning theory suggests that hyperactivity is reinforced by the attention it elicits, thereby increasing in frequency and intensity; hyperactivity may represent modeling of older siblings or peers Treatment of ADHD 4. Stimulant drugs such as methylphenidate (Ritalin)
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reduce disruptive behavior and improve concentration 4. Drug treatment is long- term in that ADHD does not wane with time 5. Psychological therapy for ADHD involves 5. Parent training 6. Classroom management programs based on operant-conditioning techniques Disorders of Undercontrolled Behavior 8. Conduct Disorder involves behaviors that violate the rights of others 3. Aggression and cruelty toward people or animals 4. Property damage 5. Lying and stealing 6. Conduct disorder is marked by callousness and lack of remorse 9. Conduct disorder is more common in boys Etiology of Conduct Disorder 10. Genetic factors may play a greater role in aggressive behavior, but a lesser role in delinquency-related behaviors 7. e.g. stealing, running away 11. Psychological factors include 8. Deficiencies in moral training and awareness 9. Modeling of aggressive behavior (Bandura) 10.Cognitive distortions in
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ChildrensDisorders - Abnormal Psychology, Eighth Edition...

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