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Unformatted text preview: Definitions of Substance-Related Disorders Abnormal Psychology 0. Substance dependence is characterized by 0. Tolerance to drug action occurs (greater doses, diminished drug action) 1. Withdrawal symptoms occur with drug cessation 2. Person recognizes excessive use of the drug 3. Much of the persons time is spent getting the drug or recovering from its effects 4. Substance use continues despite physical or psychological problems caused by the drug Definitions of Substance-Related Disorders 0. Substance abuse is characterized by 0. Failure to fulfill major obligations (e.g. work or child care) 1. Exposure to physical dangers (e.g. driving while intoxicated) 2. Legal problems brought on by drug use 3. Persistent social or interpersonal problems (e.g. arguments with spouse) Alcohol Abuse and Dependence 1. Alcohol dependence can include tolerance and withdrawal reactions 5. Abrupt cessation can lead to anxiety, depression, weakness, and an inability to sleep 6. Delirium tremens (DTs) is a severe alcohol withdrawal reaction that includes hallucinations 7. Alcohol tolerance is common in alcoholism 2. Alcohol abuse can be part of a polydrug abuse (80-85% of alcohol abusers smoke) Short-term Actions of Alcohol 3. Alcohol is absorbed from the stomach into the blood 8. Alcohol is metabolized by the liver (1 oz/hr) 4. Alcohol is a drug 5. Alcohol acts within brain to 9. Stimulate GABA receptors (reduces tension) 10.Increases dopamine/serotonin levels (pleasurable aspects of intoxication) 11.Inhibits glutamate receptors (cognitive actions) Long-term Actions of Alcohol 6. Alcoholics reduce their food intake when consuming alcohol 12.Alcohol has no nutrient value 13.Alcohol impairs food digestion 14.Result is vitamin deficiency (B-complex) 0. Can lead to brain damage and amnesia 7. Alcohol kills brain cells, leading to loss of gray matter from the temporal lobes 8. Alcohol suppresses the immune system Nicotine and Tobacco Smoking 9. Smoking tobacco results in absorption of nicotine into the blood 9....
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- Spring '08
- Abnormal Psychology