Text, p. 58+
built on Freud’s ideas & extended his theory by stressing the
of development beyond early childhood.
His theory of development holds that psychosexual
growth & psychosocial growth take place together, and that at each stage of life we face the task
He describes development in terms of the entire life span, divided by specific crises to be
is a turning point in life, when we have the potential to move forward
or to regress.
At these turning points we can either resolve our conflicts or fail to master
the developmental task. To a large extent, our life is the result of the choices we make at
Text, p. 5860 – 106; chart, HANDOUT
Erikson brought an emphasis on social factors to contemporary psycho-analysis.
psychoanalysis is based on
id or drive psychology
, & holds that instincts & intrapsychic conflicts
are what shape the personality.
More recent thinking tends to be based on
which additionally emphasizes the striving of the ego for mastery and competence throughout
the human life span.Erikson’s focus is on the ego, which offers ways of dealing with life’s tasks
throughout the life cycle.
First year of life (refer to HANDOUT chart). During this time, as the mouth
& lips are sensitive erogenous zones, sucking produces erotic pleasure. Orality is the chief
method of relating to the external world. The first mode of approach in the oral erogenous zone
that is, to “take in” in a dependent fashion what is offered by the mother. Other
modes include spitting out (expelling), a closing up of the lips (retention) & biting (oral
behavior: Involves pleasurable stimulation of the mouth. Adults who exhibit
excessive oral needs (excessive eating, chewing, talking, smoking, drinking) may have an oral
fixation, based on deprivation of oral gratification during infancy; greediness & acquisitiveness--
Oral-aggressive or -sadistic
behavior: Adult characteristics such as sarcasm, hostility,
Erikson: Trust vs Mistrust
: An infant’s basic task is to develop a sense of trust in self, others, &
the world, learned by being caressed & cared for. If the significant others in an infant’s life
provide the necessary love, the infant develops a sense of trust; when love is absent, the result is
a general mistrust of others.