Emotions___Experiences___Existential

Emotions___Experiences___Existential - EMOTIONS &...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: EMOTIONS & SENSATIONS DIMENSIONS • • • • • • • • Emotional / physical feelings or combination Overt / covert feelings or combination Positive / negative / neutral feelings In or out of awareness Intensity of feelings Appropriateness for context & stimulus Congruence Helpful or harmful emotions 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 2 OVERVIEW DIMENSIONS, continued • Most troublesome are those evident to others but outside our own awareness, especially those unacceptable to others • Congruence: Unity or consistency with which people express their emotions – Verbal and nonverbal clues to emotions all give the same message 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 3 IMPORTANCE IN COUNSELING • Emotions typically lead people into treatment • Must recognize & deal productively with feelings • Helps engender hope & optimism in clients 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 4 ANALYZING & RESPONDING ANALYZING & RESPONDING, continued continued • Analysis of emotions along the 8 dimensions • Reflection – Identifies & feeds back the underlying or important meaning that emotions or experiences have for them – Gives another perspective – Deepens client’s awareness of those emotions client’ – Promotes thought & insight – Lets client know he is heard & understood 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy – Encourages further discussion & self-exploration 5 self- • Reflection of feeling – Contains a word that labels client’s emotion client’ • Reflection of meaning (content) – Captures the significance the experience has for the client • Both use language that enhances client’s client’ awareness & demonstrates that therapist is tuned into the client 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 6 1 ANALYZING & RESPONDING, continued continued ANALYZING & RESPONDING, continued continued • Communicating empathy • Empathy • Usually reflections that are inaccurate don’t harm the don’ therapeutic process – As long as the relationship is open & supportive, enabling client to correct the reflection 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 7 – Involves feeling deeply connected to people – Being sensitive to the nuances in their words and nonverbal cues – Sensing & almost experiencing their emotions (without losing your boundaries) – Successfully communicating that awareness to the client 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 8 Existential Therapy EXISTENTIAL THEORIES A Philosophical/Intellectual Approach to Therapy • Emphasizes our freedom to choose what to make of our circumstances • Based on assumption that we are free, and therefore responsible for our choices/actions • We are the author of our life – we are what we choose to be 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 10 Existential Therapy, cont. • A process of searching for the value and meaning in life • Therapist’s basic task is to Therapist’ encourage clients to explore their options for creating a meaningful existence 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 11 MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS • Viktor Frankl in Europe – Man’s Search for Meaning (1963) Man’ • Rollo May in the US – The Meaning of Anxiety (1950); Love & Will (1969) • Irvin Yalom in the US – Existential Psychotherapy (1980) • James Bugental in the US – The Art of the Psychotherapist (1987) • Clark Moustakas with Children – Psychotherapy with Children (1959, 1992) 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 12 2 VIKTOR FRANKL ROLLO MAY 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 13 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 14 IRVIN YALOM Development • Arose in Europe during 1940’s & 1950’s 1940’ 1950’ – Sequalae of the two Great Wars – Pervasive sense of alienation & meaninglessness • Growing industrialization, urbanization of society • Scientific advances • Response to the need for restoration of their humanness & to help cope with meaningless-ness of life meaningless2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 15 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 16 Development, continued • Frankl & May widely read in US during 1950’s & 1950’ 1960’s 1960’ • Existentialism as a treatment has declined, but continues to influence today’s concept of today’ therapist’s role therapist’ – Contributes to realization that therapy is a way to give meaning to lives that lack purpose or fulfillment Dimensions of the Human Condition • Inevitability of Death – Fear of our ultimate nonbeing • Existential alienation – We are ultimately alone • Meaninglessness – Only certainties are birth & death – Beyond that life is random process – Only we can make sense of it 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 18 • Theory focuses on the universal issues that people face in today’s world today’ 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 17 3 Dimensions of the Human Condition • Anxiety & guilt – Inevitable part of the human condition Dimensions of the Human Condition • Existential guilt – When we fail to take responsibility for making our lives meaningful – When we realize that we have not become what we might have become • Existential anxiety – Deep uneasiness about the givens • Our existence is finite • We are mortal • There is no purpose but the ones we create for ourselves • Depression results from our efforts to defend against existential guilt & anxiety – When we avoid the task of making our lives meaningful 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 20 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 19 Human Development • Concentrate on – Unconscious conflict between wish to escape the givens of the human condition & wish to achieve fulfillment – Emotional difficulties stem from failure to deal successfully with inevitabilities of human condition & to make life meaningful & authentic Dasein • Being present, being in the world • Acknowledges that humans exist, have consciousness, are responsible for their own existence • One’s ability to simultaneously live in One’ present, be conscious, & take responsibility for making life meaningful, while realizing that death is inevitable 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 22 • Attend to development thru life span • View life as creating our own continually evolving histories; people are always becoming something new 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 21 Concept of Mental Health • “Being in balance & harmony – – – – With one’s inner-self; one’ innerWith one’s friends, family & colleagues one’ With one’s physical environment one’ With one’s spirituality” one’ spirituality” Potentials of the Human Condition • Optimistic & hopeful theory • Believe that people have potential to transcend those inevitabilities • Importance of experiencing the unity of self and world • People are not passive victims—they become victims— architects of their own lives • We always have choices always 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 23 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 24 4 Potentials of the Human Condition, cont. • Awareness – The greater our awareness, the more possibilities that are open to us to address our fears & anxieties – Allows us to recognize life’s limitations & life’ challenges – Allows us to make choices that make these limitations as worthwhile as possible 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 25 Potentials of the Human Condition, cont. • Authenticity & intimacy – The kind of existence human beings have • When they accept the responsibility for choosing the direction of their lives • When they base those choices on values determined thru increasing self-awareness self- – Taking responsibility for making choices based on awareness 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 26 Potentials of the Human Condition, cont. • Authenticity & intimacy, cont. – 3 essential features (Bugental) (Bugental) • People are aware of themselves & their relationships with the world • They make choices, knowing that choices, decisions are inevitable consequences of responsibility • They take responsibility for their choices, recognizing that awareness is imperfect 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 27 Potentials of the Human Condition, cont. – Freedom & responsibility • 3 aspects of freedom (Yalom) (Yalom) – Choice – Action – Change • Brings with it responsibilities – To be aware of self & own options – To consider past history & future potential – To exercise courage & thought in making changes & choices 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 28 Potentials of the Human Condition, cont. – Self-Actualization Self• Each has an essential nature, part universal & part unique (Maslow) (Maslow) • A natural process leading toward growth & fulfillment • Failure to achieve results in feelings of shame, defeat, anxiety, perception of life as meaningless 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 29 2/10/2005 Potentials of the Human Condition, cont. – Making meaning • Life has potential to be meaningful if we use capacities to bring purpose, worth, & meaning into our lives • Meaning is the purpose & logic of our lives • Because life is a process, we are constantly evolving, becoming more fully ourselves, & making meaning Existential Therapy 30 5 Existentialism: A Dynamic Therapy • Freud’s dynamics involved an Freud’ instinctually driven being at war with a world that prevents the satisfaction of the innate aggressive and sexual drives • Neo-Freudians stressed conflict Neobetween child’s inner press toward child’ growth, mastery & autonomy vs. his need to receive acceptance & approval from important adult 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 31 A Dynamic Therapy, continued • Existentialists see the conflict as being between the individual and the “givens” or ultimate concerns of all human beings 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 32 Existential“Ultimate Concerns” • DEATH • FREEDOM • ISOLATION • MEANINGLESSNESS 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 33 DEATH • A core of inner conflict is between the awareness of inevitable death and the simultaneous wish to continue to live • One of the child’s major developmental child’ tasks is to deal with the terror of oblivion • To cope with this terror, we erect defenses of denial against death awareness 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 34 FREEDOM • Conflict issues from our awareness of freedom and groundlessness vs. our deep need and wish for ground & structure • Freedom: The human being is responsible for and the author of his/her own world, own life design, own choices and actions 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 35 ISOLATION • Conflict between the awareness of our fundamental isolation and the wish to be protected, to merge and to be part of a larger whole • Existential isolation: No matter how closely we relate to another person, there remains a final unbridgeable gap; each of us enters existence alone and must depart from it alone 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 36 6 MEANINGLESSNESS • Conflict: How does a being who requires meaning find meaning in a universe that has no meaning? • Humans are neurologically “wired” to wired” organize incoming stimuli into meaningful patterns • From a meaning schema we generate a hierarchy of values, a blueprint for life conduct 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 37 TREATMENT: Goals • Fundamental Goal: Help client find value, meaning, & purpose in life • Purpose: – To help client become aware of what he is doing – To get him out of the victim role • Therapist helps client confront his deepest fears & anxieties about the inevitable dimensions of life 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 38 TREATMENT: Goals, cont. • Treatment also helps client – Become aware of the freedom he does have – Recognize his options – Make choices that will lead him toward self-actualization & selfmeaningfulness in life 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 39 TREATMENT Goals, cont. INCREASED AWARENESS IS THE CENTRAL GOAL OF EXISTENTIAL THERAPY 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 40 Therapeutic Alliance • Primary vehicle for facilitating change • Therapist has great responsibility – Be clear about own values – Express own values & beliefs – Give advice – Use humor – Make suggestions & interpretations – Allow client the freedom to determine how he will use this input 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 41 Therapeutic Alliance, cont. • Therapist is a fully alive human companion for the client – Must be with the client as fully as possible – Must communicate respect, support, encouragement, & concern – Must be genuine, open & available 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 42 7 Therapeutic Alliance, cont. • Martin Buber: Levels of relationship Buber: – I to I – I to it – It to it – We to we – Us to them – I to you – I to thou: People have the deepest respect for each other and a great sense of relatedness 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 43 Therapeutic Alliance, cont. • I-Thou relationship: Where the core of me meets the core of you (Buber) (Buber) – Most profound & meaningful – Therapist truly sharing journey with client & empowering client thru this strong & honoring therapeutic connection – Therapist is open to continued learning & awareness, because existential helping operates at an intense level of involvement 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 44 Process of Treatment • Not problem- or crisis-focused problem- crisis• Begins with promoting therapist’s understanding therapist’ of client & client’s awareness of self & world client’ • Continues with enabling client to use this information to find meaning in his life, develop sense of purpose & value his life • Closes when client is able to implement his awareness of self & move forward to establish a more meaningful life – Termination can be reminder of inevitability of endings 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 45 INTERVENTIONS • Primary intervention: Use of the person of the therapist & I-Thou relationship I• Being in the World – Important for therapist to understand client’s client’ objective & subjective world – 3 modes of being • Being in the physical world • Being in the world of interpersonal relationships • Being in the personal & psychological world – Important to focus on interaction of all 3 modes, helping client keep them in balance (May) 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 46 INTERVENTIONS, cont. • Symbolic Growth Experience – Peak experiences: Intense experiences in promoting learning & growth (Frankl, (Frankl, Maslow) Maslow) – SGE is conscious recognition & interpretation of the symbolic dimensions of an immediate experience leading to heightened awareness, discovery of meaning, & personal worth (Frick) 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 47 INTERVENTIONS, cont. • Symbolic Growth Experience, cont. – Client is educated about concept of SGE – He selects important past experience & explores its importance & symbolism in his life – Is helped to clarify meaning of the experience – Has a clearer sense of meaning & is able to repeat his use of these strategies to understand significance of other experiences 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 48 8 INTERVENTIONS, cont. • Paradoxical Intention – Victor Frankl’s Logotherapy: “therapy through Frankl’ Logotherapy: meaning” meaning” – To break cycle of fear increasing fear • Therapist urges client to do or wish for the very thing he fears most INTERVENTIONS, cont. • “Telling the story”: Life Myth Exploration story” • Sharing existence in the moment: Presence • Centered awareness of being • Self-responsibility: Ownership Self49 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 50 • Dereflection – Tells client to focus less on self & more on finding meaning outside of self 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy INTERVENTIONS, continued • Dream Work • Working through resistances • Confronting existential anxiety • Sustaining changes in being APPLICATION • Themes of meaningfulness, authenticity, freedom, responsibility, spirituality have great relevance for all clients – Importance of having a sense of meaning that transcends our immediate & finite lives 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 51 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 52 APPLICATION, continued • Applicable to people who – Are coping with life-threatening & chronic lifeillnesses – Have suffered losses of all kinds – Have challenging limitations in their lives – Are at a crossroads & are looking for direction APPLICATION, continued • Applicable to diagnostic groups – Clients coping with relatively mild disorders that do not need rapid relief • Longstanding, pervasive anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) • Depression (Dysthymic Disorder) (Dysthymic – Milder personality disorders after other forms of treatment • Dependent, Avoidant, Narcissistic ??, Histrionic • Applicable over cultures – “A universal philosophy of humankind” humankind” 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 53 – Chronic or recurrent mental disorders when symptoms are in remission 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 54 9 EVALUATION • LIMITATIONS – Relies heavily on developing strong clientclientclinician relationship & verbal communication – Therapist offers little structure or direction – No offer of specific steps or strategies for intervention in therapy – Leisurely & lengthy process of treatment EVALUATION, continued • STRENGTH – Philosophy of human development that can be infused into other systems of treatment • CONTRIBUTIONS – Emphasis on importance of collaborative, respectful, authentic client-clinician relationship client– Extended therapy beyond pathology & symptoms – Legitimized inclusion of deep & philosophical issues – Paradoxical intention used in many treatment approaches 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 56 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 55 CONTRIBUTIONS, cont. • Helped bring the person back into central focus • Concentrates on central facts of human existence: Self-consciousness & our consequent freedom Self• Provides a new positive view of death – Death gives life its meaning • New understanding of anxiety, guilt, frustration, loneliness, alienation • Provides framework for understanding universal human concerns • Emphasis on human quality of therapeutic relationship 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 57 10 ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online