Emotions___Experiences___Existential - EMOTIONS&...

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Unformatted text preview: EMOTIONS & SENSATIONS DIMENSIONS • • • • • • • • Emotional / physical feelings or combination Overt / covert feelings or combination Positive / negative / neutral feelings In or out of awareness Intensity of feelings Appropriateness for context & stimulus Congruence Helpful or harmful emotions 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 2 OVERVIEW DIMENSIONS, continued • Most troublesome are those evident to others but outside our own awareness, especially those unacceptable to others • Congruence: Unity or consistency with which people express their emotions – Verbal and nonverbal clues to emotions all give the same message 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 3 IMPORTANCE IN COUNSELING • Emotions typically lead people into treatment • Must recognize & deal productively with feelings • Helps engender hope & optimism in clients 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 4 ANALYZING & RESPONDING ANALYZING & RESPONDING, continued continued • Analysis of emotions along the 8 dimensions • Reflection – Identifies & feeds back the underlying or important meaning that emotions or experiences have for them – Gives another perspective – Deepens client’s awareness of those emotions client’ – Promotes thought & insight – Lets client know he is heard & understood 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy – Encourages further discussion & self-exploration 5 self- • Reflection of feeling – Contains a word that labels client’s emotion client’ • Reflection of meaning (content) – Captures the significance the experience has for the client • Both use language that enhances client’s client’ awareness & demonstrates that therapist is tuned into the client 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 6 1 ANALYZING & RESPONDING, continued continued ANALYZING & RESPONDING, continued continued • Communicating empathy • Empathy • Usually reflections that are inaccurate don’t harm the don’ therapeutic process – As long as the relationship is open & supportive, enabling client to correct the reflection 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 7 – Involves feeling deeply connected to people – Being sensitive to the nuances in their words and nonverbal cues – Sensing & almost experiencing their emotions (without losing your boundaries) – Successfully communicating that awareness to the client 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 8 Existential Therapy EXISTENTIAL THEORIES A Philosophical/Intellectual Approach to Therapy • Emphasizes our freedom to choose what to make of our circumstances • Based on assumption that we are free, and therefore responsible for our choices/actions • We are the author of our life – we are what we choose to be 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 10 Existential Therapy, cont. • A process of searching for the value and meaning in life • Therapist’s basic task is to Therapist’ encourage clients to explore their options for creating a meaningful existence 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 11 MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS • Viktor Frankl in Europe – Man’s Search for Meaning (1963) Man’ • Rollo May in the US – The Meaning of Anxiety (1950); Love & Will (1969) • Irvin Yalom in the US – Existential Psychotherapy (1980) • James Bugental in the US – The Art of the Psychotherapist (1987) • Clark Moustakas with Children – Psychotherapy with Children (1959, 1992) 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 12 2 VIKTOR FRANKL ROLLO MAY 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 13 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 14 IRVIN YALOM Development • Arose in Europe during 1940’s & 1950’s 1940’ 1950’ – Sequalae of the two Great Wars – Pervasive sense of alienation & meaninglessness • Growing industrialization, urbanization of society • Scientific advances • Response to the need for restoration of their humanness & to help cope with meaningless-ness of life meaningless2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 15 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 16 Development, continued • Frankl & May widely read in US during 1950’s & 1950’ 1960’s 1960’ • Existentialism as a treatment has declined, but continues to influence today’s concept of today’ therapist’s role therapist’ – Contributes to realization that therapy is a way to give meaning to lives that lack purpose or fulfillment Dimensions of the Human Condition • Inevitability of Death – Fear of our ultimate nonbeing • Existential alienation – We are ultimately alone • Meaninglessness – Only certainties are birth & death – Beyond that life is random process – Only we can make sense of it 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 18 • Theory focuses on the universal issues that people face in today’s world today’ 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 17 3 Dimensions of the Human Condition • Anxiety & guilt – Inevitable part of the human condition Dimensions of the Human Condition • Existential guilt – When we fail to take responsibility for making our lives meaningful – When we realize that we have not become what we might have become • Existential anxiety – Deep uneasiness about the givens • Our existence is finite • We are mortal • There is no purpose but the ones we create for ourselves • Depression results from our efforts to defend against existential guilt & anxiety – When we avoid the task of making our lives meaningful 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 20 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 19 Human Development • Concentrate on – Unconscious conflict between wish to escape the givens of the human condition & wish to achieve fulfillment – Emotional difficulties stem from failure to deal successfully with inevitabilities of human condition & to make life meaningful & authentic Dasein • Being present, being in the world • Acknowledges that humans exist, have consciousness, are responsible for their own existence • One’s ability to simultaneously live in One’ present, be conscious, & take responsibility for making life meaningful, while realizing that death is inevitable 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 22 • Attend to development thru life span • View life as creating our own continually evolving histories; people are always becoming something new 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 21 Concept of Mental Health • “Being in balance & harmony – – – – With one’s inner-self; one’ innerWith one’s friends, family & colleagues one’ With one’s physical environment one’ With one’s spirituality” one’ spirituality” Potentials of the Human Condition • Optimistic & hopeful theory • Believe that people have potential to transcend those inevitabilities • Importance of experiencing the unity of self and world • People are not passive victims—they become victims— architects of their own lives • We always have choices always 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 23 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 24 4 Potentials of the Human Condition, cont. • Awareness – The greater our awareness, the more possibilities that are open to us to address our fears & anxieties – Allows us to recognize life’s limitations & life’ challenges – Allows us to make choices that make these limitations as worthwhile as possible 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 25 Potentials of the Human Condition, cont. • Authenticity & intimacy – The kind of existence human beings have • When they accept the responsibility for choosing the direction of their lives • When they base those choices on values determined thru increasing self-awareness self- – Taking responsibility for making choices based on awareness 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 26 Potentials of the Human Condition, cont. • Authenticity & intimacy, cont. – 3 essential features (Bugental) (Bugental) • People are aware of themselves & their relationships with the world • They make choices, knowing that choices, decisions are inevitable consequences of responsibility • They take responsibility for their choices, recognizing that awareness is imperfect 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 27 Potentials of the Human Condition, cont. – Freedom & responsibility • 3 aspects of freedom (Yalom) (Yalom) – Choice – Action – Change • Brings with it responsibilities – To be aware of self & own options – To consider past history & future potential – To exercise courage & thought in making changes & choices 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 28 Potentials of the Human Condition, cont. – Self-Actualization Self• Each has an essential nature, part universal & part unique (Maslow) (Maslow) • A natural process leading toward growth & fulfillment • Failure to achieve results in feelings of shame, defeat, anxiety, perception of life as meaningless 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 29 2/10/2005 Potentials of the Human Condition, cont. – Making meaning • Life has potential to be meaningful if we use capacities to bring purpose, worth, & meaning into our lives • Meaning is the purpose & logic of our lives • Because life is a process, we are constantly evolving, becoming more fully ourselves, & making meaning Existential Therapy 30 5 Existentialism: A Dynamic Therapy • Freud’s dynamics involved an Freud’ instinctually driven being at war with a world that prevents the satisfaction of the innate aggressive and sexual drives • Neo-Freudians stressed conflict Neobetween child’s inner press toward child’ growth, mastery & autonomy vs. his need to receive acceptance & approval from important adult 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 31 A Dynamic Therapy, continued • Existentialists see the conflict as being between the individual and the “givens” or ultimate concerns of all human beings 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 32 Existential“Ultimate Concerns” • DEATH • FREEDOM • ISOLATION • MEANINGLESSNESS 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 33 DEATH • A core of inner conflict is between the awareness of inevitable death and the simultaneous wish to continue to live • One of the child’s major developmental child’ tasks is to deal with the terror of oblivion • To cope with this terror, we erect defenses of denial against death awareness 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 34 FREEDOM • Conflict issues from our awareness of freedom and groundlessness vs. our deep need and wish for ground & structure • Freedom: The human being is responsible for and the author of his/her own world, own life design, own choices and actions 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 35 ISOLATION • Conflict between the awareness of our fundamental isolation and the wish to be protected, to merge and to be part of a larger whole • Existential isolation: No matter how closely we relate to another person, there remains a final unbridgeable gap; each of us enters existence alone and must depart from it alone 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 36 6 MEANINGLESSNESS • Conflict: How does a being who requires meaning find meaning in a universe that has no meaning? • Humans are neurologically “wired” to wired” organize incoming stimuli into meaningful patterns • From a meaning schema we generate a hierarchy of values, a blueprint for life conduct 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 37 TREATMENT: Goals • Fundamental Goal: Help client find value, meaning, & purpose in life • Purpose: – To help client become aware of what he is doing – To get him out of the victim role • Therapist helps client confront his deepest fears & anxieties about the inevitable dimensions of life 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 38 TREATMENT: Goals, cont. • Treatment also helps client – Become aware of the freedom he does have – Recognize his options – Make choices that will lead him toward self-actualization & selfmeaningfulness in life 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 39 TREATMENT Goals, cont. INCREASED AWARENESS IS THE CENTRAL GOAL OF EXISTENTIAL THERAPY 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 40 Therapeutic Alliance • Primary vehicle for facilitating change • Therapist has great responsibility – Be clear about own values – Express own values & beliefs – Give advice – Use humor – Make suggestions & interpretations – Allow client the freedom to determine how he will use this input 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 41 Therapeutic Alliance, cont. • Therapist is a fully alive human companion for the client – Must be with the client as fully as possible – Must communicate respect, support, encouragement, & concern – Must be genuine, open & available 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 42 7 Therapeutic Alliance, cont. • Martin Buber: Levels of relationship Buber: – I to I – I to it – It to it – We to we – Us to them – I to you – I to thou: People have the deepest respect for each other and a great sense of relatedness 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 43 Therapeutic Alliance, cont. • I-Thou relationship: Where the core of me meets the core of you (Buber) (Buber) – Most profound & meaningful – Therapist truly sharing journey with client & empowering client thru this strong & honoring therapeutic connection – Therapist is open to continued learning & awareness, because existential helping operates at an intense level of involvement 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 44 Process of Treatment • Not problem- or crisis-focused problem- crisis• Begins with promoting therapist’s understanding therapist’ of client & client’s awareness of self & world client’ • Continues with enabling client to use this information to find meaning in his life, develop sense of purpose & value his life • Closes when client is able to implement his awareness of self & move forward to establish a more meaningful life – Termination can be reminder of inevitability of endings 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 45 INTERVENTIONS • Primary intervention: Use of the person of the therapist & I-Thou relationship I• Being in the World – Important for therapist to understand client’s client’ objective & subjective world – 3 modes of being • Being in the physical world • Being in the world of interpersonal relationships • Being in the personal & psychological world – Important to focus on interaction of all 3 modes, helping client keep them in balance (May) 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 46 INTERVENTIONS, cont. • Symbolic Growth Experience – Peak experiences: Intense experiences in promoting learning & growth (Frankl, (Frankl, Maslow) Maslow) – SGE is conscious recognition & interpretation of the symbolic dimensions of an immediate experience leading to heightened awareness, discovery of meaning, & personal worth (Frick) 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 47 INTERVENTIONS, cont. • Symbolic Growth Experience, cont. – Client is educated about concept of SGE – He selects important past experience & explores its importance & symbolism in his life – Is helped to clarify meaning of the experience – Has a clearer sense of meaning & is able to repeat his use of these strategies to understand significance of other experiences 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 48 8 INTERVENTIONS, cont. • Paradoxical Intention – Victor Frankl’s Logotherapy: “therapy through Frankl’ Logotherapy: meaning” meaning” – To break cycle of fear increasing fear • Therapist urges client to do or wish for the very thing he fears most INTERVENTIONS, cont. • “Telling the story”: Life Myth Exploration story” • Sharing existence in the moment: Presence • Centered awareness of being • Self-responsibility: Ownership Self49 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 50 • Dereflection – Tells client to focus less on self & more on finding meaning outside of self 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy INTERVENTIONS, continued • Dream Work • Working through resistances • Confronting existential anxiety • Sustaining changes in being APPLICATION • Themes of meaningfulness, authenticity, freedom, responsibility, spirituality have great relevance for all clients – Importance of having a sense of meaning that transcends our immediate & finite lives 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 51 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 52 APPLICATION, continued • Applicable to people who – Are coping with life-threatening & chronic lifeillnesses – Have suffered losses of all kinds – Have challenging limitations in their lives – Are at a crossroads & are looking for direction APPLICATION, continued • Applicable to diagnostic groups – Clients coping with relatively mild disorders that do not need rapid relief • Longstanding, pervasive anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) • Depression (Dysthymic Disorder) (Dysthymic – Milder personality disorders after other forms of treatment • Dependent, Avoidant, Narcissistic ??, Histrionic • Applicable over cultures – “A universal philosophy of humankind” humankind” 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 53 – Chronic or recurrent mental disorders when symptoms are in remission 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 54 9 EVALUATION • LIMITATIONS – Relies heavily on developing strong clientclientclinician relationship & verbal communication – Therapist offers little structure or direction – No offer of specific steps or strategies for intervention in therapy – Leisurely & lengthy process of treatment EVALUATION, continued • STRENGTH – Philosophy of human development that can be infused into other systems of treatment • CONTRIBUTIONS – Emphasis on importance of collaborative, respectful, authentic client-clinician relationship client– Extended therapy beyond pathology & symptoms – Legitimized inclusion of deep & philosophical issues – Paradoxical intention used in many treatment approaches 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 56 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 55 CONTRIBUTIONS, cont. • Helped bring the person back into central focus • Concentrates on central facts of human existence: Self-consciousness & our consequent freedom Self• Provides a new positive view of death – Death gives life its meaning • New understanding of anxiety, guilt, frustration, loneliness, alienation • Provides framework for understanding universal human concerns • Emphasis on human quality of therapeutic relationship 2/10/2005 Existential Therapy 57 10 ...
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