Belief that unless treatment facilitates healing of past wounds & relieves developmental blocks,
people will continue to repeat dysfunctional patterns
These theories emphasize the impact of the past on the present
Clinicians should have some understanding of clients’ backgrounds to make accurate diagnoses
3 Therefore, it is important to take a careful history early in treatment to develop an effective
In our post-modern era of counseling and psychotherapy, emphasis is placed on understanding
people from a holistic point of view, and from their perspective
Careful questioning can elicit valuable historical information to that end.
Included in your text on pages 38 – 47 are examples of good questioning, and how to conduct an
4 Psychoanalysis is a system of psychology derived from the discoveries of Sigmund Freud.
Originating as a method for treating psychoneurotic disorders, psychoanalysis has come to serve
as the foundation for a general theory of psychology. Knowledge derived from the treatment of
individual patients has led to insights into art, religion, social organization, child development,
and education. In addition, by elucidating the influence of unconscious wishes on the physiology
of the body, psychoanalysis has made it possible to understand and treat many psychosomatic
According to Ernst Kris, psychoanalysis may be defined as human nature seen from the vantage
point of conflict.
Psychoanalysis views the mind as the expression of conflicting forces, some of
which are conscious.
Others, perhaps the major ones, are unconscious. Psychoanalysis
emphasizes the importance of unconscious forces in mental life.
5 From your text, p. 91
Firstborn in a Viennese family of 3 boys and 5 girls.
Father was very authoritarian,
common in that culture. Limited finances, but sent Freud to best schools.
As a Jew at that time,
his choices were limited.
Settled on medicine, became a physician, and then a noted lecturer at
the University of Vienna by age 30.
His family background is a factor to consider in
understanding the development of his theory.
Devoted the rest of his life to formulating and extending his theory of psychoanalysis, that began
with his interest in a perplexing case of his friend Joseph Breuer, the case of Anna O., a classical
The most creative phase of his life corresponded to a period when he was experiencing
severe emotional problems of his own. When he was in his early 40’s, he had numerous
psychosomatic disorders, as well as exaggerated fears of dying and other phobias. During this
time he was involved in the difficult task of self-analysis. By exploring the meaning of his own
dreams, he gained insights into the dynamics of personality development. He first examined his
childhood memories and came to realize the intense hostility that he had felt for his father. He