Person_Centered_Therapy___Rogers - PERSON-CENTERED THEORY...

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Unformatted text preview: PERSON-CENTERED THEORY PERSON- PERSON-CENTERED PERSON THEORY Carl R. Rogers (& Natalie Fuchs Rogers) Carl R. Rogers (& Natalie Fuchs Rogers) “If I keep from meddling with people, they take care of themselves. If I keep from commanding people, they behave themselves. If I keep from preaching at people, they improve themselves. If I keep from imposing on people, they become themselves.” themselves.” ~ Carl Rogers 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 3 “I have found it of enormous value when I can permit myself to understand another person.” person.” “I have found it enriching to open channels whereby others can communicate their feelings & their perceptual worlds to me.” me.” “The more I am open to the realities in me and in the other person, the less I find myself wishing to rush in to fix things.” things.” “Life, at its best, is a flowing, changing process in which nothing is fixed.” ~ Carl Rogers fixed.” 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 4 1902 -- 1987 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 5 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 6 THEORY DEVELOPMENT, cont • 1940’s: Nondirective Counseling 1940’ – Challenged validity of directive techniques – Therapist’s creation of permissive, nondirective Therapist’ climate & acceptance of client’s feelings client’ – Challenged assumption that “counselor knows best” best” – Emphasized acceptance of client’s feelings client’ – Technique of clarification of feelings THEORY DEVELOPMENT, cont • 1950’s: Client-Centered Therapy 1950’ Client– Reflective period: reflection of feelings – Focus on client rather than nondirective methods – Phenomenological world of client – Actualizing tendency leads to client change – Necessary & sufficient conditions for change 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 7 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 8 DEVELOPMENT OF THEORY • 1960’s: Focus on Nature of “Becoming” 1960’ Becoming” – Experiential period, until his death • Therapist should go beyond reflection of feelings • Should engage in wider range of responses to meet client’s needs client’ THEORY DEVELOPMENT, cont • 1970’s & 1980’s: Person-Centered 1970’ 1980’ PersonApproach – Expansion to education, industry, groups, conflict resolution, and search for world peace – Interest in how people obtain, possess, share, or surrender power & control – Application of person-centered approach personto politics, achievement of world peace 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 10 – On Becoming a Person: “Becoming the self that one truly is” is” • Openness to & trust in one’s experience one’ • Internal locus of evaluation • Willingness to be “in process” process” – Extensive research 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 9 “THIRD FORCE” in Psychotherapy: HUMANISM • HUMANISM (experiential & relationship-oriented) relationship– EXISTENTIALISM • LOGOTHERAPY (Viktor Frankl) Frankl) • TRANSPERSONAL (Ken Wilbur) SHARED CONCEPTS • Phenomenological approach • Respect for client’s subjective client’ experience • Trust in capacity of client to make positive & constructive conscious choices • Emphasis on: Freedom, Choice, Values, Personal Responsibility, Autonomy, Purpose, and Meaning 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 12 – PERSON-CENTERED (Carl Rogers) PERSON– GESTALT (Fritz Perls) Perls) 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 11 DIFFERENCES • EXISTENTIALISTS – Client faced with anxiety of choosing to create identity in a world that lacks intrinsic meaning – There is nothing that we “are”, no internal are” “nature”; we are nature” faced every minute with choice 2/10/2005 HUMANISTIC PHILOSOPHY • “A style of thought or attitude which makes the human central, important, valuable, crucial, pivotal, wonderful, powerful – even miraculous.” miraculous.” (Barton) 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 14 • PERSONPERSONCENTERED – Each has within a potential nature that can be actualized & provide meaning – Metaphor of Bean or Acorn that actualizes itself when given the appropriate conditions 13 Person-Centered Theory HUMANISTIC PHILOSOPHY, continued continued HUMANISTIC PHILOSOPHY, continued continued • Rogers’ humanistic concepts Rogers’ – Perceived people as being basically strong & capable – Trusted people to handle their difficulties, grow & develop & realize their potential – Treatment goal is to affirm & empower people to trust themselves to make use of their innate potentials 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 15 • Human potential – Inherent tendency of people to develop in positive ways that enhance & maintain themselves & humanity – Rogers had a strong belief in dignity & worth of each individual – Important aspect of the human potential is people’s tendency toward self actualization people’ • Their natural inclination to move in the direction of expansion, growth, health 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 16 HUMANISTIC PHILOSOPHY, continued continued HUMANISTIC PHILOSOPHY, continued continued • Conditions of worth – Believed that people need to experience certain conditions to enable them to move toward selfselfactualization – Many clients have not received the acceptance & affirmation that all need to become fully functioning. – Goal of therapy is to • provide that climate of acceptance & unconditional positive regard • Counteract negative messages client has received • Enable client to develop positive self-esteem & realize his selfpotential as actualized & fully functioning 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 17 • Fully functioning person – – – – Openness to experience Living with sense of meaning & purpose Trust in self & others Experience freedom in choosing among alternatives – Experiencing creativity (ability to produce new & effective ideas) • Fundamental treatment goal – Help client become fully functioning 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 18 HUMANISTIC PHILOSOPHY, continued continued PERSON-CENTERED THERAPY PERSON• A reaction against the directive and psychoanalytic approaches • Challenges – Assumption that “the counselor knows best” best” – Validity of advice, suggestion, persuasion, teaching, diagnosis, & interpretation – Belief that clients can’t understand & resolve can’ their own problems without direct help without – Focus on problems over persons • Phenomenological perspective – Belief that each person has own unique perception of the world – That determines person’s beliefs, behaviors, person’ emotions & relationships • Rogers believed each individual exists at the center of a constantly changing world of experience – Wanted client’s own experience to inform their client’ treatment – No authority should take precedence of client’s client’ use of direct experience 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 19 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 20 PERSON-CENTERED THERAPY, cont. cont. • Emphasizes – Therapy as a journey shared by two fallible people – The person’s innate striving for self-actualization person’ self– The personal characteristics of the therapist and the quality of the therapeutic relationship – The counselor’s creation of a permissive, “growth counselor’ promoting” climate promoting” – People are capable of self-directed growth if selfinvolved in a therapeutic relationship 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 21 TREATMENT: GOALS • Facilitate client’s movement along path toward client’ trust & ability to be in present moment • Promote self-awareness, empowerment, selfoptimism, self-esteem, responsibility, autonomy self– – – – – Help client build internal locus of control Become more aware of external reality Become more congruent in presentation Make better use of potential Become more able to manage life& resolve concerns – Become more actualized 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 22 THERAPEUTIC ALLIANCE • Essential ingredient for change • Role of therapist – Creative environment allowing client to trust in self & make good use of potential – Accept & understand client – Respect client’s subjective experiences client’ – Value client – Give full & active participation in treatment process THERAPEUTIC ALLIANCE, continued continued • Client-Clinician Relationship Client– Seen as two equal & capable human beings – Become collaborators in a shared journey – Both grow & are enriched by the process – Work together in close & positive ways to empower client to make changes resulting in client’s living full & actualized life client’ • Therapist must have self-awareness & ability to selfbe fully present; use self as instrument of change 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 23 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 24 THERAPEUTIC ALLIANCE, continued continued CORE THERAPEUTIC CONDITIONS • Necessary & sufficient conditions for personality change to occur – – – – Two people in psychological contact Client experiences incongruity / is anxious Therapist is congruent / integrated in the relationship Therapist experiences unconditional positive regard & acceptance (real caring) for client – Therapist experiences empathy for client’s internal client’ frame of reference & communicates this to client – Communication is achieved (at least minimally) Person-Centered Theory 26 • A relationship that understands the client’s inner world, accepts him for client’ who he is, & creates an atmosphere of freedom for the client is essential • When the client feels this relationship has been established, he uses the freedom to explore his inner-self. inner2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 25 2/10/2005 GENUINENESS • Therapist must know herself well • Therapist’s self awareness allows Therapist’ her to really be herself in counseling relationship & communicate honesty & openness • Uses thoughtful and relevant selfselfdisclosure 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 27 CONGRUENCE • The most important therapist characteristic • Therapist transmits messages that are clear and coherent • Therapist’s inner and outer selves Therapist’ are consistent • Congruence in communication important in treatment 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 28 IMMEDIACY • Therapist must be in the present moment – Aware of & attuned to your environment & interactions ACCEPTANCE • Unconditional positive regard – Caring about, respecting, liking, accepting client for who he is without placing any requirements on him to act, feel, think in certain ways to please therapist – Sees the client as doing the best he can at the present moment – Can express concern about person’s person’ choices 29 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 30 • Focus on the here-&-now here• Emphasizes present interchanges between client & clinician • Discussion of past focuses on client’s client’ perceptions; bring them into present situation 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory ACCURATE EMPATHIC UNDERSTANDING • Accurate sensing of what client is experiencing, feeling, communicating • Ability to let client know he is heard in this way • A process of sensitive, accurate, & active listening • Deeply grasping subjective world of client • Transmitting understanding of that world to enhance client’s own self-awareness as the most client’ selfpowerful force in change 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 31 NONDIRECTIVENESS • Emphasizes importance of client’s, rather client’ than the therapist’s, taking the lead & being therapist’ the focus of the treatment process – Instrumental nondirectiveness • Allowing clients to take charge of the therapeutic process – Principled nondirectiveness used in PersonPersonCentered • Providing the therapeutic conditions to create a favorable psychological environment conducive to change 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 32 INTERVENTIONS TO NOT USE: NOT • DIAGNOSIS • DETAILED TREATMENT PLANNING • EXTENSIVE QUESTIONING APPLICATION • Therapists now use broader array of interventions with more disturbed clients • Used alone, Person-Centered therapy Personhas declined – Most likely to be used with other approaches • Can be used in career counseling, play therapy, management training 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 34 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 33 NONDIRECTIVENESS • Emphasizes importance of client’s, rather client’ than the therapist’s, taking the lead & being therapist’ the focus of the treatment process – Instrumental nondirectiveness • Allowing clients to take charge of the therapeutic process EVALUATION • Important alternative to Freudian & behaviorist techniques • Rogers humanized clinician’s role clinician’ • Most important strategy for change: The core conditions in the context of a positive therapeutic alliance – Principled nondirectiveness used in PersonPersonCentered • Providing the therapeutic conditions to create a favorable psychological environment conducive to change 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 35 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 36 EVALUATION: Strengths • Up-to-date, optimistic theory Up- to• Consistent with western culture • Values pertinent to all individuals – – – – Client’s right to own opinions & thoughts Client’ Respect, genuineness, acceptance, empathy Phenomenological focus Attention to need for therapist to LISTEN & respond to client – Interest in relationships & commonalities among people – Immediacy of counseling situation – Demystification of counseling situation 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 37 EVALUATION: Limitations • Seen as overly simplistic • Clinician may not appreciate need for training • Doesn’t touch on developmental, psychodynamic, Doesn’ behavioral approaches • Limited in effectiveness for those not motivated to change, or manifesting significant pathology • Lacks specific techniques • Seen as too leisurely and unfocused for many 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 38 CONTRIBUTIONS • Research supports importance of client’s client’ perception of the client-clinician relationship in clienteffecting positive change – Rogers gave therapists the guidelines & tools to use in establishing such a relationship – This relationship is fundamental to most therapeutic approaches practiced today SELF-DISCLOSURE • Purpose is to advance progress of treatment – Enhance collaborative nature of relationship – Provide useful feedback – Normalize client’s reactions client’ – Provide different perspective • Rogers is internationally read • He was widely regarded as a peacemaker • His ideas used in Parent Effectiveness Training developed by Gordon 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 39 • WHEN IN DOUBT, DON’T SELFDON’ SELFDISCLOSE 2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 40 SELF-DISCLOSURE, cont. • Be concise • Timing is important • Focus should remain on client & his concern • Should be relatively impersonal • Core conditions should be evident in any self-disclosure self2/10/2005 Person-Centered Theory 41 ...
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