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chapter1 - CHAPTER 1 THE STRUCTURE OF METALS 1-1 Chapter 1...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 1 THE STRUCTURE OF METALS 1-1 Chapter 1 lThe Structure of Metals Products: solid-state devices. turbine blades Liquid Solidification Unit cell (0.1 nm .. “4.....— metal 1, - I I I“ Polycrystals Products: paper clips! bolts. springs. I-beams. Body-centered cubic Lattice aircraft fuselage Face—centered cubic Imperfections I Hexagonal close—packed Dislocations Grain boundaries Allotropism Plastic dc formation Anisotropy FIGURE 1.1 An outline of the topics described in Chapter 1. 1-2 Tungsten bcc Al fcc Iron bcc below 1674°F and ‘ above 2541°F fee between 1674°F and 2541°F 1-3 1 FIGURE 1.3 The face-centered cubic (fee) crystal structure: (a) hard-ball model; (b) unit cell; and (6) single crystal with many unit cells. Source: W. G. Moflatt, at al., The Structure and Properties of Materials, Vol. I, John Wiley & Sons, 1976. (b) ta] ”.Q‘URE 1.4 I'ltmlgonal close-packed (hop) crystal structure: (a) unit cell; and (b) single crystal with many unit cells. Source: ' ' 15, VOL I. John Wiley & Sons.1976. MIlfl‘att, et al., The Structure and Properties of Matena FIGURE 1.5 I Permanent deformation, also called plastic deforma- tion, of a single crystal subjected to a shear stress: (a) structure before deformation; and (b) deformation by slip. The b/a ratio influences the magnitude of shear stress required to cause slip. // Ia) (b) Dislocation «sass; III...— I FIGURE 1.8 _ Types of dislocations in a singie crys— tal: Ia’ edge dislocation: and (b) screw dislocation. _____,__—..—.—.—.—.—.—.—_..._— Self-interstitial Vacancy Subatitutional impurity atom FIGURE 1.9 Defects in a single-crystal lattice. Seif-interstiiiai. vacancv. interstitial, After Moffatt et al. and substitutional. Source: FIGURE 1.12 Plastic deformation of idealized lequiaxedl grains in a specimen subjected to compression (such as occurs in the rolling or forging of metals): (a) before deformation: and (b) after deformation. Note the alignment of grain boundaries along a horizontal direction; this effect is known as preferred orientation. T Residual stresses Strength, hardness, ductility Cold-worked ‘ and recovered‘,‘ I Recrystal- , lization I I Temperature 1—10 Hardness FIGURE 1.14 Schematic illustration of the effects of recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth on mechanical properties and on the shape and size of grains. Note the formation of small new grains during recrystallization. Source: (3. Sachs. ...
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