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chapter6 - CHAPTER 6 NONFERROUS METALS AND ALLOYS...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 6 NONFERROUS METALS AND ALLOYS: PRODUCTION, GENERAL PROPERTIES, AND APPLICATIONS TABLE 6.1 APPROXIMATE COST PER UNIT VOLUME FOR WROUGHT METALS AND PLASTICS RELATIVE TO COST OF CARBON STEEL Gold 60,000 Magnesium alloys 2—4 Silver 600 Aluminum alloys 2—3 Molybdenum alloys 200—250 High-strength low-alloy steels 1.4 Nickel 35 Gray cast iron 1.2 Titanium alloys 20—40 Carbon steel 1 Copper alloys 5—6 Nylons, acetals, and silicon rubber' 1.1—2 Zinc alloys 2.5—3.5 Other plastics and elastomers' 0.2—1 Stainless steels 2—9 ‘ As molding compounds. Note: Costs vary significantly with quantity of purchase, supply and demand, size and shape, and various other factors. 6-1 Aluminum Association Alloys Designation of aluminum alloys” Wrought aluminum alloys are identified by four digits and a temper designaticm, showing the condition of the material. The major alloying element is identified by the first digit. lxxx—Commercially pure aluminum: 99.00 percent (minimum) aluminum. Excellent corrosion resistance, high electrical and thermal conductivity, good workability, low strength, not heat treatable. Zxxx—Copper: High strength-to-weight ratio, low resistance to corrosion, heat treatable. 3xxx--Manganese: Good workability, moderate strength, generally not heat treatable. 4xxx—Silicon: Lower melting point, forms dark-gray to charcoal oxide film, generally not heat treatable. 5xxx—Magnesium: Good corrosion resistance and weldability, moderate to high strength, not heat treatable. (Sm—Magnesium and silicon: Medium strength, good formability, machinability, weldability, and corrosion resistance, heat treatable. 7xxx—Zinc: Moderate to very high strength, heat treatable. Sxxx—mOther element. The second digit in these designations indicates modifications of the alloy. For the lxxx series, the third and fourth digits indicate the minimum amount of aluminum in the alloy. Thus 1050 indicates a minimum of 99.50 percent aluminum, and 1090 indicates a minimum of 99.90 percent aluminum. In other series, the third and fourth digits identify the different alloys in the group and have no numerical significance. Cast Aluminum Alloys The designations for cast aluminum alloys and ingots also consist of four digits. The first digit indicates the major alloy group, as follows: 1xx.x—Aluminum (99.00 percent minimum). 2xx.x—Aluminurn—copper. 3xx.x——-Aluminurn—silicon, with copper and/or magnesium. 4xx.x—Aluminum-silicon. 5xx.x—Aluminum——magnesium. 6xx.x—Unused series. 7xx.x—AIuminum—zinc. 8xx.x—Aluminum—tin. In the 1xx.x series, the second and third digits indicate the minimum aluminum content, as in wrought aluminum. For the other series, the second and third digits have no numerical significance. The fourth digit (to the right of the decimal point) indicates product form: 0 denotes discrete castings (such as carburetor or electric- motor housing), and 1 denotes ingot. 6-3 Temper Designations Temper designations. The temper designations for both wrought and cast aluminum are: F As fabricated (by cold or hot working, or casting). ' O p Annealed (from cold-worked or cast state). H .Strain hardened by cold working (for wrought products only). ‘. , H1+Strain-hardened only, followed by a second digit indicating degree of cold work, ranging from 1 to 9. I‘ll—Strain hardened and partially annealed, followed by a second digit indicating degree of strain hardening remaining. H3—Strain hardened and stabilized, followed by a second digit indicat- ing degree of strain hardening. Heat treated. Tl—Cooled from hot working and naturally aged. ' l - Til—Cooled from hot working, cold worked, and naturally aged. . T3—Solution treated, cold worked, and naturally aged. Tide-Solution treated and naturally aged. TS—Cooled from hot working and artificially aged. 'T6—Solution treated and artificially aged. T7—Solution treated and stabilized. TS—Solution treated, cold worked, and artificially aged. ' ‘T9—Solution treated, artificially aged, and cold worked. TIO—Cooled from hot working, cold worked, and artificially aged. W Solution treated only (unstable temper). 6-4 TABLE 63 # MANUFACTURING PROPERTIES AND TYPICAL APPLICATIONS OF WROUGHT ALUMINUM ALLOYS - _________________————+——-———-—— CHARACTERISTICS“ _________.____—-—-————-H-— CORROSION ' TYPICAL ALLOY RESISTANCE MACHINABILITY WELDABILITY APPLICATIONS ________________..______.———————— 1100 A . D—C ‘ A Sheet metal work, spun hollow ware. tin stock 2024 C C—B C-B Truck wheels, screw machine ‘ , . _ — 7 _ _ 7 products, aircraft structures 3003 _ A . ‘ _ D—C A Cooking utensils, chemical equipment, pressure vessels, sheet metal work, builders’ hardware, storage tanks 5052 A D—C A Sheet metal work, hydraulic tubes, and appliances: bus, truck and marine uses 6061 B Dec A Heavy-duty structures where corrosion resistance is needed, truck and marine structures, railroad cars, furniture, pipelines, bridge railings. hydraulic tubing 7075 « MC B-D _, 7 _ D _ ‘ I Aircraft and other structures, keys, ' hydraulic fittings 'Aexcellant;D,poor. - . ‘ , - -_ _- -. A , J. .. Designation of Magnesium Alloys __..___g,,_ ___ J } Magnesium alloys are designated as follows. 1. One or two prefix letters, indicating the principal alloying elements from Aluminum Rare earth Thorium Zirconium I Manganese Lead Silver Silicon Tin Zinc Nawbw:WIM> 2. Two or three numerals, indicating the percentage of the principal alloying elements, rounded off to the nearest decimal. 3. A letter of the alphabet, except the letters I and 0, indicating the standardized alloy, with minor variations in composition. 4. The temper of the material, indicated by the same symbols used for aluminum alloys. For example, the alloy AZ91C-T6 indicates that: 0 The principal alloying elements are aluminum (A, 9 percent, rounded off) and? zinc (Z, 1 percent). ' The letter C, the third letter of the alphabet, indicates that this is the third alloy standardized, after A and B, which were the first and second alloys, respectively, that were standardized. ' T6 indicates that this alloy has been solution treated and artificially aged 6 TABLE 61 m PROPERTIES AND TYPICAL APPLICATIONS OF WROUGHT COPPER AND BRASSES {i W ULTIMATE 3 TYPE NOMINAL TENSILE YIELD I AND UNS COMPOSITION STRENGTH STRENGTH ELONGATION "a NUMBER (96) (MPa) (MPa) IN 50 mm (96) TYPICAL APPLICATIONS a Electrolytic 99.90 Cu. 220—450 70—365 55—4 Downspoms, gutters, roofing, ,3 tough pitch 0.04 O -_ gaskets, auto radiators, busbars, nails copper printing rolls. rivets. (C1 1 000) . _ Recl brass, 85.0 Cu, 270—725 70-435 55—3 Weather- -stripping, conduit, sockets 85% 15.0 Zn fasteners, fire extinguishers, 7, ' (C2C3000) condenser and heat exchanger , tubing. ‘ Cartridge 70.0 Cu, 300—900 75—450 66—3 Radiator cores and tanks, flashlight . brass, 70% 30.0 Zn shells, lamp fixtures. fasteners, Iocks- (C216000) hinges ammunition components, -’ 4 plumbing accessories. f' Free-cutting 61.5 Cu, 340—470 125—310 53-18 Gears, pinions, automatic high- spee'o brass 3.0 Pb. screw machine parts. (C36000) 35.5 Zn - , _ - - *j-v‘ Naval brass 60.0 Cu, 380—61 0 170—455 50—1 7 Aircraft turnbuckle barrels, balls, ' v:- (C46400 to 39.25 Zn, bolts, marine hardware, propeller 5}" 646700) 0.75 Sn ' shafts, rivets vaive stems, condense .'. plates. TABLE 6’ 1# PROPERTIES AND TYPICAL APPLICATIONS OF WROUGHT BRONZES ii - ULTIMATE , .- ' TYPEE NOMINAL TENSILE ‘ YIELD ' AND UNS COMPOSITION STRENGTH STRENGTH ELONGATION _.': NUMBER (96) ,(MPa) (MPa) » IN 50 mm (96) _ TYPICAL APPLICATIONS 7 ________________________.______—.——————— Architectural 57.0 Cu, 1 bronze 3.0 Pb, 415 140 30 Architectural extrusions. store fronts; (C38500) 40.0 Zn (As extruded) thresholds, trim, butts, hinges. ;; ‘ Phosphor 95.0 Cu, 325—960 130—550 64—2 Bellows, clutch disks, cotter pins, i bronze, 5% A 5.0 Sn, diaphragms, fasteners. wire brushes, 3 (651000) trace P chemical hardware, textile machinery; Free-cutting 88.0 Cu. 300—520 130—435 50—1 5 Bearings, bushings, gears, pinions, ' phosphor 4.0 Pb, . shafts, thrust washers, valve parts. bronzte 4.0 Zn. ((554-400) 4.0 Sn Low silicon 98.5 Cu, 275—655 100—475 ' 55—1 1 Hydraulic pressure lines, bolts. marine bronze, B 1.5 Si hardware, electrical conduits, heat (C65100) 7 exchanger tubing. Nickel silver, 7 65.0 Cu, 340—900 125—525 50—1 Rivets, screws. slide fasteners, hollow 65—1 0 25.0 Zn, ware, nameplates. : (C7d500) 10.0 Ni _M 6-8 I ickel 200 [annealed] 'I sconel 600 [annealed] 1 astelloy C-4 [solution- -'ated and quenched] SECE'C. '- (I 1 PRINCIPAL ULTIMATE , ALLOYING TENSILE YIELD ELEMENTS STRENGTH STRENGTH ELONGATION 4.4 Al. 1300 900 0.6 Ti 30 Cu 525 230 29 Cu. 1050 750 3 AI 1 5 Cr, 640 210 8 Fe 16 Cr. 785 400 15 Mo 6—9 IN 50 mm (95) 28 35 30 48 54 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS ILDY [CONDITION] (96) (MPa) None 380—550 100—275 60-40 Chemical and food processing industry, aerospace equipment, electronic parts. Springs. plastics extrusion equipment. molds for glass, diaphragms. . Screw-machine products, water meter parts. Pump shafts. valve stems, springs. Gas turbine parts, heat- treating equipment, electronic parts, nuclear reactors. High temperature stability, resistance to stress- corrosion cracking. TABLE 559/ PROPERTIES AND TYPICAL APPLICATIONS OF SELECTED NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOYS AT 870°C 5 l l ' ULTIMATE TENSILE YIELD STRENGTH STRENGTH ELONGATION ALLOY CONDITION (MPa) (MPa) IN 50 mm (96) TYPlCAL APPLICATIONS Astroloy Wrought 770 690 25 Forgings for high temperature. Hastelloy X Wrought 255 180 50 Jet engine sheet parts. lN-1 00 Cast 885 695 6 Jet engine blades and wheels. _ lN-102 Wrought 215 200 110 Superheater and jet engine parts; lnconel 625 Wrought 285 275 .g 125 Aircraft engines and structures. - chemical processing equipment._ lnconel 718 Wrought 340 330 88 Jet engine and rocket parts. 7 MAR-M 200 Cast 840 760 4 Jet engine blades. 3 MAFLM 432 Cast 730 605 8 integrally cast turbine wheels. Rene 41 Wrought 620 550 19 Jet engine parts. Udirnet 700 Wrought 690 635 27 Jet engine parts. Waspaloy Wrought 525 515 35 Jet engine parts. 6-10 l I ! VARIOUS TEMPERATURES m M NOMINAL UL TIMA TE UL TIMA TE COM P05 1- TENSILE YIELD EL ON- REDUCTION TENSILE WELD EL ON- REDUCTION TlON STRENGTH STRENGTH GA TION OF AREA TEMP. STRENGTH STRENGTH GA TION OF AREA TYPlCAL (56) UNS - CONDITION (MP3) (MP3) (96) (96) ('6) (MP3) (MPa) (56) (56) APPLICATIONS —-‘__ 9915 Ti R50250 Annealed 330 240 30 55 300 150 95 32 80 Airframes: chemical, . » desalination, and marine parts: plate type hem exchangers. 5 Al. 2.5 Sn R154520 Annealed 860 310 16 40 300 565 450 18 45 Aircraft engine compressor blades and ducting; steam turbine blades. |O TABLE 6.)! \ PROPERTIES AND TYPICAL APPLICATIONS OF wnouenr TITANIUM ALLOYS ROOM TEMPERATURE 3 Al. 4 V R536400 Annealed 1000 925 14 30 300 725 650 14 35 Rocket motor cases; 425 670 570 18 40 blades and dim for 550 530 430 35 50 aircraft turbines and compressors: structural forging: and fasteners. Solution + ago 1175 1100 10 20 300 980 900 10 28 1 2 35 22 45 13 V. R58010 Solution + age 1275 1210 8 — 425 1100 830 12 — High strength 11 Cr, - fasteners: aerospace 3 Al components: honeycomb panels. 6-11 Low-melting Alloys 0 Lead (Pb) o Zinc (Zn) - Tin (Sn) Precious Metals 0 Gold (Au) 0 Silver (Ag) 0 Platinum (Pt) Nanomaterials - 0.1 to 100 nm in size 0 May have superior properties 0 Applications I Cutting tools I Computer chips I Flat-panel computer displays I Other mechanical components, e.g., spark plug electrodes, implants, sensors,... 6-13 ...
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