Chapter%205%20Outline%20for%20posting

Chapter%205%20Outline%20for%20posting - Chapter 5 Outline...

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Chapter 5 Outline I. What Are Fats? A. Fats are one form of a larger group of water-insoluble substances called lipids. B. Lipids come in different forms. 1. Lipids may be solid or liquid at room temperature. C. Three types of lipids are present in foods. 1. Triglycerides are the most common food-based lipid. a. Triglycerides consist of 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol backbone. 1. Fatty acids are long chains of carbon atoms bound to each other as well as to hydrogen atoms. 2. Glycerol is an alcohol composed of three carbon atoms. 2. Triglycerides are classified by their length, saturation, and shape. a. Fatty acids can vary in the number of carbons they contain. 1. Short-chain fatty acids are fewer than six carbons in length. 2. Medium-chain fatty acids are six to twelve carbons in length. 3. Long-chain fatty acids are fourteen or more carbons in length. 4. Chain length determines method of digestion and absorption and how fats function in the body. b. Triglycerides vary by the types of bonds found in fatty acids. 1. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between carbons. 2. Monounsaturated fatty acids have one double bond in the carbon chain. 3. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have more than one double bond in the carbon chain. c. Fatty acids have different shapes. 1. Saturated fatty acids always form straight, rigid chains that pack tightly together. a. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature. 2. Each double bond in unsaturated fatty acids gives them a kink, which makes them unable to pack together tightly. a. Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature. b. Unsaturated fats may be cis or trans. 1. Most trans fats are produced by hydrogenation. 3. Phospholipids combine lipids with phosphate. a. Phospholipids are water soluble.
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Chapter%205%20Outline%20for%20posting - Chapter 5 Outline...

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